Biology part 2 final book notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Patrick Hall

Biology part 2 final book notes Chapter 22 221natural selection The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genotypes belonging to the same population The mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwinartificial selection Animal breedingpopulation Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and capable of interbreeding with one anotheradaptationIn evolutionary biology a particular structure physiological process or behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce Also the evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a traitphenotypephysical characteristicsheritable Able to be inherited in biology refers to genetically influenced traitsgenotypeGenetic makeuppopulation genetics The study of genetic variation and its causes within populationsPopulation genetics has three main goalsTo explain the origin and maintenance of genetic variationTo explain the patterns and organization of genetic variationTo understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in populationsgene pool All of the different alleles of all of the genes existing in all individual of a populationMendelian population A local population of individuals belonging to the same species and exchanging genes with one anotherfrequency In population genetics the proportion of all alleles or genotypes in a population composed of a particular allele or genotypeif there is 1 allele in a given location its frequency is 1The genetic structure of a pop does not change over time if certain conditions exist If an allele is useless its frequency will not increase even though its dominantHardyWeinberg equililbrium The allele frequency at a given locus in a sexually reproducing population that is not being acted on by agents of evolution the conditions that would result in no evolution in a populationseveral conditions must be met for a pop to be at hardyweinberd equilibrium mating is randompopulation size is infiniteThere is no gene flow There si no mgiration either into or out of the popthere is no mutation There is no change to alleles A and a and no new alleles are added to change the gene poolnatural selection does not affect the survival of particular genotypes There is no differential survival of indivs with different genotypeshardyweinberg equation 22 P2pqq1 222mutations generate genetic variationmutationany change in the organisms dnamutations help create and maintain genetic variation within populationsgene flow may change allele frequencies gene flowmigration of indivs and movements of gametes between populationsgenetric drift may cause large changes genetric driftRandom changes in allele freqrandom allele exachange can lead to the death of an 1 allelepopulaton bottleneckspopulations that are normally large may pass through occasional periods when only a small number of indivs survivefounder effectchange in genetic population by the small size of a colonizing population having not all the alleles found among members of its source populationnonrandom mating changes genotype frequencies
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