second midterm summary2 .docx

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Biological Sciences
Kenneth Lam

B32 LEc 6whats the meaning of 60Hz Nernst equation for one single ion Goldman equation for multiple ionna and K lec 5 bulk flow convective transport the sequence for blood flow in bony fish heartsinus venous the veins are where the input of blood isand then atrium and then ventricle and then bulbus arteriousu where the pacemaker located for the fish and vertebrate animals sinous venous sinoatrail node what are the two types of conduction fibresinternodal pathway and purkinje fibres sequece of AP conductionfirst internal pathway then AC node then AV bundle bundle of his then purkinje fibres what are the method to upregulate and downregulate the heart rateby intervention from nervesnote that its not direcly acting upon changing the movement of ions but by acting on the mscarinic receptor or the G protein whichthen controlthe movement of the ion through the ion channels so they the receptors receiving the NTare not ionic channelssympathetic regulatoin neuron secrete NE or neurone ask the adrenal medulla to secrete E then beta G protein and then adnylyl cyclase know how to spell themrate of de is increasedfrequency of AP increase more frequent AP faster HRpara to decrease HR para neuron secrete Ach muscarinic receptor not direcly control the movement of ion so similar to beta receipr and G proteinwich then act on G protein which act on the K and Ca channels
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