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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kenneth Lam

1. When groups of sensory receptors can encode a broader variety of stimulus intensities because the receptors vary in the extent to which they each are activated by given stimulus intensities, this is called what? A. Range fractionation ******** B. Responsiveness segregation C. Intensity differentiation D. Activity allometry E. Receptor isolation 2. In the context of the mammalian kidney, what is the “vasa recta”? A. The vasculature associated with the ascending and descending Loops of Henle ******** B. The vascular bundle that interfaces with the Bowman’s capsule C. The artery and vein that feeds each of the kidneys D. The tubules of a cortical nephron that are functionally equivalent to the Loop of Henle in a juxtamedullary neprhon E. The vascular net that surrounds the urinary bladder 3. The frequency of AP firing by a sensory neuron is NOT influenced by which of the following? A. Stimulus intensity B. Amplitude of the receptor current C. Refractory period D. Duration of stimulation (how long the stimulus has already been occurring) E. None of the above (they all influence AP firing rate) *********** 4. True/False: There is no current flow within neurons in myelinated portions, only at the nodes. A. True B. False ********** 5. How does caffeine act on fatigued muscle cells to alleviate fatigue? A. Binds to ACh receptors to enhance EPSPs in muscle fiber B. Binds to actin fibers to enhance cross-bridge formation C. Acts to promote stronger pulse of Ca++ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum ******** D. Enhances oxidative phosphorylation rates E. Acts as buffer to decrease intracellular H+ concentrations 6. If a patient showed up in an emergency room with muscles that were stuck in a contracted state, which of the following chemicals might the person have been poisoned with? A. Curare B. Eserine C. Nicotine D. A & B E. B & C ********* 7. Poisoning of voltage-gated Na+ channels will cause which of the following to occur in a neuron? A. Stimulating the neuron will not result in graded potentials B. Stimulating the neuron will not result in AP firing ************ C. Stimulating the neuron will result in neither a graded potential nor an AP D. The resting membrane potential will rise E. The resting membrane potential will fall 8. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the “length constant”? A. It is the membrane voltage at which the strength of a graded potential has declined by 63% *********** B. It influences the speed of propagation of action potentials C. It is made larger by myelination D. It is made smaller when axon diameter is thinner E. It is made larger when resistance to the flow of charge longitudinally along the outside of the neuron is low
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