Animal Physiology Review.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Rosa Da Silva

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Animal Physiology Review Lecture 9/10: Endocrine System: Evolution of Endocrine System - Evolutionary change in response to a hormone rather than the molecule itself o Some have same effect  Human growth hormone works on fish  Estrogen from pregnant mares works on post-menopausal women o Some have different effects  Prolactin = milk production in mammals but inhibits metamorphosis/promotes growth in amphibians & regulates water balance in fish Structural Categories of Hormone Hydrophilic (Fast) - Biological Amines o Catecholamines  Epinephrine/norepinephrine  Thyroid hormone - Peptides/Proteins o Insulin Hydrophobic (Slow) - Steroids o Bind to intracellular proteins for gene transcription o Lipids  Mostly from adrenal/gonad glands  Testosterone/estrogen o Synthesized from cholesterol Pituitary Gland - Master gland that secretes 9 hormones that control other glands o Anterior (Adenohypophysis)  Releases tropic hormones  Causes release of other hormones (3 order) o Posterior (Neurohypophysis)  Secretes neurohormones  Oxytocin and vasopressin/ADH travel in vesicles down axons  1 order pathway o Hypothalamus receives input/serves as integration center Blood Calcium Thyroid Gland - Follicum o T4/T3  Targets most cells  Increased energy utilization  O 2onsumption  Growth/development - C cells o Calcitonin  Targets bone/kidney 2+  Decrease [Ca ]  Calcium deposits in bone  Calcium excreted from kidneys Parathyroid Gland - Parathyroid chief cells o Parathyroid Hormone  Targets bone/kidney  Increases [Ca ]  Stimulates bone calcium to Ca ions  Calcium absorbed in kidneys  Calcitrol stimulates uptake up Ca from gut - Parathyroid chief cells (PTH) and C cells (Calcitonin) work inversely to each other 2+ o Regulate blood Ca levels o PTH up, Calcitonin down - Homeostatic Plasma Ca level = 8.5-11 mg/dL Blood Glucose - Too high = osmotic balance off - Too low = brain cannot function Insulin - Lowers glucose level - β Cells o stimulates storage of lipid/glycogen Glucagon - Raises glucose level - α cells o targets liver/adipose o mobilizes lipid reserves/glucose synthesis Somatostatin (Growth-Hormone Inhibiting Hormone [GHIH]) - regulates digestive processes o δ cells  inhibits insulin/glucagon secretion  slows nutrient absorption rate/enzyme release rate - Used for Protein-rich meals Pancreatic Polypeptide - F cells o Inhibits call bladder contraction Hormone Interaction Antagonistic - Opposite effects o Calcitonin vs. PTH o Depends on concentrations of each  Effects weaker than if unopposed Additive/Synergistic - Effects of hormones greater than individual effects o Growth Hormone + Glucocorticoids = conservation of glucose Permissive - One hormone needed for the other to take effect o Epinephrine requires Thyroid hormone Integrative - Different but complementary effects o Calcitrol and PTH raise blood [Ca ] 2+ Vertebrate Stress Response - Sympathetic nerve activation o Increased:  Heart rate/Respiration  Dilation of airways  Glucagon secretion from pancreas  Secretion of Epinephrine from Adrenal Medulla  Blood glucose level o Decreased:  Insulin release from pancreas Adrenal Stimulation - Done by Hypothalamic-Pituitary axis o Hypothalamus = corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) o Anterior Pituitary = Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH) o Adrenal Cortex = Cortisol  target cells increase blood glucose - CRH  ACTH  Cortisol 3 Stages of Stress (ARE) Alarm Phase - Immediate response from sympathetic o Epinephrine release - Glycogen/lipid mobilization for energy reserves - Reduction in digestion - Increased heart/respiratory/sweat rate Resistance Phase - Prolonged stress o Starvation/illness/anxiety - Glucocorticoid dominance o Epinephrine/Thyroid/GH - High energy demands Exhaustion Phase - Breakdown of homeostatic regulation o Failure in 1+ organ system - Exhaustion of fuel reserves Lymphatic System & Immune Response Hematopoiesis - Mammals = bone marrow - Fish = kidneys - Amphibians = spleen/kidneys/liver/bone marrow - Erythropoietin is a hormone released by kidneys in response to low O lev2ls o Stimulates formation of erythrocytes Hemolymph - Insect immune response - Plasmatocytes = macrophages - Crystal cells = melanization/wound repair o Engulf pathogens in hardened case  Destroyed with anti-microbial peptides - Lamellocytes = encapsulation Vertebrate Leukocytes - Immune responsive - Nucleated - 5 major types o Neutrophil o Eosinophil o Basophil o Monocyte/macrophage o Lymphocyte - Responds to toxins/abnormal cells/pathogens Vertebrate Lymphatic System - Collects excess filtered fluid o Returns it to circulatory system - Lymph veins/ducts contain valves to prevent backflow - Identify  Attack  Immune Thermoregulation (Fever) - Cells damage  localized heating o Inflammation o Arrival of leukocytes - Increased blood flow - Whole body hyperthermia - Fever induced when macrophages produce prostaglandin o Signals Hypothalamus to increase set temperature  Causes entire body to raise temperature Forms of Immunity - Innate o Present at birth o Genetically determined - Acquired o Post-natal o “learned”  Passive  Immunization after exposure to dead pathogen  Transferred from a different source  Active  Development of Antibodies after exposure to pathogen Acquired Immunity Lymphocytes - Produced in lymphoid tissue/organs/red bone marrow - Travel to site of injury/infection - Eliminate threats with physical/chemical response - Travel from blood to interstitial fluid through capillaries o Return to venous blood through lymphatic vessels Lymphoid System Lymphocyte: - Origin = bone marrow - Maturation: o T cells = Thymus o B cells = bone - Activation o Spleen o Lymph nodes - Transport o Lymphatic ducts o Blood vessels Classes of Lymphocyte T Cells (Thymus Dependant) - Cell-mediated immune response - Most common - Stimulate/Inhibit B/T cells B Cells (Bone Marrow Derived) - Antibody-mediated immune response o Produce/secrete Antibodies - 10-15% Natural Killer Cells - 5-10% - Surveillance - Attack foreign/cancer/viral cells Classes of Antibodies - IgG o Most abundant - IgE o Allergy/inflammation response - IgD o Activates B cells - IgM o Primary release after arrival of an antigen - IdA o Found in glandular secretions Natural Killer Cells - Detects foreign antigen - Realigns golgi apparatus to periphery of connection site - Secretes perforin o Perforin lyses membrane of abnormal cell Respiratory Physiology I/II - Respiration = Mitochondria consuming oxygen + glucose and producing carbon dioxide + ATP Fick’s Law of Diffusion - = rate of diffusion - = Diffusion coefficient - = Area of Membrane - = Change in concentration over distance (pressure for gases) - To maximize d
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