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Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION/FUNCTION VENTRAL MUSCLES Pectoralis Major Sternum Humerus of foreleg Adducts foreleg (moves it toward the chest) Pectoralis Minor Sternum Proximal end of the humerus Adducts and retracts the foreleg Latissimus Dorsi Dorsal, lateral and ventral Proximal end of the humerus Moves the foreleg caudally sides to the pig on the medial surface and dorsally External Oblique Abdominal Posterior ribs and Ventral aponeurosis near the Huff and puff muscles Muscle lumbodorsal fascia linea alba Internal Oblique Abdominal Huff and puff muscles - - Muscle Transverse Abdominus - - Huff and puff muscles Rectus Abdominus - - Huff and puff muscles External Intercostals Raise the rib cage during - - inhalation Internal Intercostals Lower the rib cage during - - expiration NECK MUSCLES Brachiocephalic Back of the neck, back of Humerus Moves the forelimb the head and the mastoid anteriorly process Sternomastoid Sternum and splits into a Mastoid process on either Flexes the head to the chest “V” shape side of the head and inclines it to one side or the other Digastric Temporal and occipital bones Mandible Acts to lower the jaw of the skull Sternum “breast bone” - - - Thyroid Cartilage “adam’s - - - apple” Trachea - - - Thyroid Gland - - Endocrine system. Smaller than thymus gland. Dark reddish gland. Thymus - - Immune system. Larger, lighter, less red than the thyroid gland. Sternothyroid (beneath Sternum Thyroid bone Depresses the larynx. sternohyoid) Involved in speech and swallowing. Thyrohyoid Thyroid Cartilage Hyoid Depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx, affecting speech and swallowing movements. LATERAL FORELIMB MUSCLES Triceps Brachii, long head Scapula - Extends elbow Triceps Brachii, lateral head Proximal end and lateral side - Extends elbow of the humerus Brachialis - - - Extensor Carpi Radialis - - - Extensor Digitorum - - - Communis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris - - - Spinodeltoid - - - Brachioradialis - - Flexing the elbow SHOULDER MUSCLE Trapezius Occipital bone, cervical Spine of scapula Retracts scapula towards the vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae spine, helps stabilize scapula during forelimb movement Supraspinatus Scapula Proximal end of humerus Adducts humerus Spinodeltoid Muscle Spine of the scapula - Raises the humerus Infraspinatus Scapula Proximal end of the humerus Rotates the humerus
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