Lab Exam Notes: Lab 6- Respiratory & Digestive System

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

LAB 6 – RESPIRATORY & DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (QUIZ PREP) THORACIC ORGANS  LARYNX: voice box  TRACHEA: wind pipe  COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES: o found on either sides of the trachea o Large, round  VAGUS NERVE o Found adjacent to the medial side of each internal carotid artery o Major autonomic (parasympathetic) nerve to the thoracic and abdominal organs  THYMUS GLAND o Large gland, whitish o Partially covers the heart and extends anteriorly into the neck region  LUNGS (APICAL, CARDIAC, DIAPHRAGMATIC AND INTERMEDIATE LOBES) o Found on either sides of the heart o Right lung has 4 lobes: 1. Apical 2. Cardiac 3. Diaphragmatic 4. intermediate o Left lung contains 3 lobes: 1. Apical 2. Cardiac 3. diaphragmatic  PARIETAL PLEURA o Thick membrane found around the lungs o Shiny layer on the inner surface of the thoracic wall  VISCERAL PLEURAL o Thin , shiny membrane on the surface of the lung o Space between visceral and parietal pleura is the pleural cavity – small o Space if filled with lubricating fluid known as pleural fluid  ATRIA o There are 2 atria o Right atrium receives blood from the anterior and posterior vena cavae o Left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary veins  VENTRICLES o Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk o Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta  CORONARY VESSELS o Found on the surface of the heart that supply blood to heart muscle o Found in the interventricular groove; this groove indicates the division between the right and left ventricle HEART AND LUNG STRUCTURES  MEDIASTINUM o Space between the lungs o Organs in it include the heart, esophagus, aorta and part of the thymus gland  ANTERIOR VENA CAVA o In humans called the superior vena cava o Is a short vessel anterior to the right side of the heart o Carries blood to the right atrium  POSTERIOR VENA CAVA o In humans called the inferior vena cava o Vessel returns blood from the posterior portion of the body o Can be viewed passing through the diaphragm mid-dorsally  PERICARDIUM o Membrane similar to pleura o Has visceral and parietal part o Visceral pericardium = thin, shiny membrane on surface of heart o Parietal pericardium = thicker, around the heart o Space between the two layers is the pericardial cavity containing the pericardial fluid  PHRENIC NERVE o Passes along the lateral edge of the pericardium o Supplies the muscle of the diaphragm  ESOPHAGUS o If you remove the left lung you can see the esophagus  AORTA o Aorta is found behind the pulmonary trunk  PULMONARY TRUNK o This artery leaves the heart on the ventral surface from the right ventricle and angles to the right  PULMONARY ARTERIES o 3 major vessels are derived from the pulmonary trunk  ductus artriosus (below)  ¼ in beyond ductus, pulmonary trunk divides into 2 pulmonary arteries  DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS o Short (about ¼ in) vessel passes from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch o Before birth used as shunt to bypass lungs  PULMONARY VEINS o These 4 vessels can be traced returning from the lungs to the left atrium and should be injected with red dye  TRACHEA  VAGUS NERVE (CRANIAL NERVE X) o The vagus nerve is somewhat dorsal to the phrenic nerve DEEP CHEST STRUCTURES  DESCENDING AORTA o Continuation of the aortic arch o There are numerous small branches to the chest wall (intercostal arteries) o Sometimes you can find one or more small branches that go to the esophagus (esophageal arteries)  ESOPHAGUS o Collapsed tube underneath the thoracic aorta  VAGUS NERVE o Lying next to esophagus  POSTERIOR VENA CAVA ABDOMINAL ORGANS  DIAPHRAGM o Muscle sheet separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities o Diaphragm aids in brea
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