Lab Exam Notes: Lab 8- Cardiovascular System

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

Lab 9 – Cardiovascular System & Heart ANTERIOR ARTERIES  Pulmonary trunk o This artery leads from the right ventricle to the lungs o Has 2 main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries  Ductus arteriosis o Shunt o Allows blood to bypass the collapsed lungs and go directly to the aorta  Coronary arteries o Right coronary artery  Groove between the R atrium and ventricle o Left coronary artery  Has 2 large branches: 1. Left circumflex artery (groove between L atrium and ventricle) 2. Anterior interventricular coronary artery (groove between the ventricles)  Aorta (leaves the left ventricle and then arches before it descends caudally along the dorsal section of the body) o Aortic arch – rounded portion of the aorta o Thoracic aorta – next portion o Abdominal aorta – below the diaphragm  Brachiocephalic (Innominate) Artery o Is the first of 2 large branches from the aortic arch o Supplies blood to the R forelimb and head o Brachiocephalic divides into the right subclavian artery and the bi- carotid trunk  Subclavian arteries o The R subclavian is one of 2 major branches of the brachiocephalic o The L subclavian branches directly from the aorta o The subclavian arteries supply blood to the shoulder and thorax  Bi-carotid trunk nd o This is the 2 major branch of the brachiocephalic o It is a short trunk and branches into the R and L common carotid arteries (humans don’t have this)  Right and left common carotid arteries – on either side of the trachea. Branch into internal and external carotid arteries o Internal carotid artery  Pumps blood to the circle of Willis which is found around the pituitary gland  The circle of Willis if the main supply of blood to the brain o External carotid artery  Supplies blood to the rest of the head. It has 3 branches: 1. Lingual artery: supplies blood to tongue 2. Facial artery: supplies blood to mandible and ventral face 3. Maxillary artery: supplies blood to upper jaw ARM AND CHEST WALL ARTERIES  Aorta**  Subclavian artery**  Costocervical trunk – this is the 1st branch of the subclavian, branching from its dorsal surface. I has 2 branches 1. Dorsal artery - Supplies blood to the lower neck and to the upper back regions 2. Anterior intercostal artery - Supplies blood to the intercostal muscles  Vertebral artery o Passes through foramina in the cervical vertebrae and supplies blood to the brain o In pigs, the L. vertebral artery usually comes directly off of the subclavian artery o R. Vertebral artery is usually a branch of the costocervical trunk  Thyrocervical (inferior cervical) artery o Supplies the thyroid gland, pectoral muscles, and parotid gland  Internal mammary (internal thoracic) artery o Branches from the subclavian artery opposite (caudal) to the thyrocervical artery o Runs on the inside of the thoracic wall, on the ventral side o Supplies blood to the chest wall and nearby structures  External thoracic (lateral thoracic) artery o Supplies blood to the pectoral muscles and serratus ventralis o It is a branch of the axillary artery just outside the chest wall  Axillary artery o In the axillary (armpit) region the subclavian artery becomes known as the axillary artery o Name changes at the point where the external thoracic artery is found  Brachial artery o In the arm, the axillary artery becomes the brachial artery  Subscapular artery o Supplies blood to the subscapular region o It branches from the axillary artery p.74-75 (review #1-22, 24)  look at diagram  Left ventricle  Right ventricle  Pulmonary trunk  Aorta  Brachiocephalic artery  Bi-carotid artery  Common carotid artery  Internal carotid artery  External carotid artery  #Lingual artery  #Facial artery  #Maxillary artery  Subclavian artery  Costocervical trunk  *Dorsal artery  *Anterior intercostal artery  Vertebral artery  Internal thoracic artery  Thyrocervical artery  External thoracic artery  Axillary artery  *Subscapular artery  *Thoracodorsal artery  Brachial artery ABDOMINAL ARTERIES  look at p. 76  Aorta**  Celiac artery o Unpaired vessel branches from the abdominal aorta near the anterior end of the kidneys o Separates into 2 major branches o Sometimes these 2 major branches originate directly from the aorta, in which case there is no celiac artery 1. Gastrohepatic artery - Supplies blood to the stomach, liver and pancreas - Has 2 major branches i. Hepatic artery: supplies blood to the liver ii. Gastroduodenal artery: supplies blood to the duodenum and stomach 2. Gastrosplenic artery - Supplies blood to the stomach and spleen - Has 2 major branches i. Gastric artery: supplies blood to the stomach ii. Splenic artery: supplies blood to the spleen  Anterior mesenteric artery o Caudal to the celiac artery, the anterior mesenteric artery branches from the aorta
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