Term test one, quiz on lecture notes (BIOB34)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rosada Silva

Define… Homeostasis: Positive feedback: Negative feedback: Regulators: Conformers: Name two major components that regulate homeostasis: Which is less expensive and why? Conformers or Regulators? What components are necessary to have in order to maintain homeostasis? Describe each component with respect to its’ importance in maintaining homeostasis. What is the main goal of homeostasis? Define Metabolic pathways and describe two types of metabolic pathways, as well as what links each pathway together. Define metabolism: Define energy metabolism: Enzymes are used to control the inner workings of cells. Describe the basic components of enzymes. Outline three properties of catalysts that accelerate chemical reactios: What factors influence enzyme activity? How do enzymes work to catalyze chemical reactions? Describe what would (with help of a diagram) happen to the rate of a chemical reaction, in respect to product concentration, if substrate concentration would increase. What does V maxrepresent? How can K bm found and what does it represent? Name four types of biochemicals and for each briefly describe their structural characteristics. Draw and label a eukaryotic cell. Outline the cell theory. What are the functions of the cell membrane? Label a cell membrane. What are the functions of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the glycocalyx? Define… Permeable: Impermeable: Diffusion: Passive diffusion: Active diffusion: Facilitated diffusion: What types of molecules diffuse through the plasma membrane? Define… Osmosis: Osmotic pressure: Osmolarity: Isotonic: Hypotonic: Hypertonic: What types of molecules cross the cell membrane via facilitated diffusion? What types of molecules carry out this facilitated diffusion? What types of gated channels exist? What conditions are required for active transport to occur? And what does active transport allow the molecules to do? Draw a Sodium-Potassium pump. What is secondary active transport? And what is one unique feature of secondary active transport? Outline exocytosis. Why is cell signaling important? Define cell signaling: How is a signal sent between cells? (what is involved)? How can a signal be passed directly from one cell to another? What is this type of signaling referred to as? What is a signal referred to as when it is sent from farther distances? Outline this type of signaling and identify what two types of this signaling (briefly describe these two types). What two systems are involved in indirect signaling? Briefly outline these two systems. Define exocrine signaling: Name the six classes of chemical messengers and briefly describe each one: Where do hydrophilic messengers bind? Where do hydrophobic messengers bind? What happens after a messenger binds to a receptor? What are examples of things that can mimic ligands? Define… Agonist: Antagonist: Describe ways in which ligands can be inactivated, and state why it is important that they are inactivated. What factors can affect the response of a target cell? What do signal transduction pathways do? Define second messengers: Name some examples of second receptors: Describe the process of signal transduction pathways that have receptor enzymes: Define… Neurons: What are the three parts
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