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[BIOB34] Ch.1-4 Midterm notes

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Biological Sciences

Ch1 Cellular Basis of Animal PhysiologyIntroduction to Physiological PrinciplesRefer animal physiology as the study of how animals work by Knut SchmitNelsen PhysiologyStudy of normal functioning of a living organism and its component partsStudy structure and function of various parts of animals and how parts work togetherIncludes all chemical and physical processes Physiological process Product of activities of complex tissues organs and systemsObey physical and chemical laws eg electrical lawsUsually regulated to maintain internal condition within acceptable ranges HomeostasisPhysiological phenotype is product of genotype and the environmentHomeostasis Internal constancy maintained through feedback loops that sense conditionTrigger appropriate response to maintain constancy Negative feedback loops Help maintain homeostasis Positive feedback loops Generates an explosive responsePhenotype Morphology physiology or behavior Arises as product of genetic makeup interact with environmentProduct of processes at different levels of biological organizationsystemsChanges with environmental and physiological challenges Genotype Genetic makeup product of evolutionary change in organism over many generationsIdentical genotype can result in different phenotypesAdaptation Refer to trait that confers increase in reproductive success in strictest evolutionary senseRefer to phenotypic changes that improve performance of a physiological systemPhenotypic plasticity Single genotype generates more than one phenotypesAbility of one genotype generates more phenotypes depending on environmental conditionCan be irreversible or reversible Irreversible plasticity Polyphenism Developmental plasticity Reversible plasticityAcclimation Under not natural laboratory conditionRefer to process of change in response to environmental changeAcclimatization Under natural environment Refer to process of change in response to natural environmental variationPolyphenism or known as developmental plasticity Form of phenotype plasticity different condition results in alterative phenotypes in organism Irreversible by subsequent changes in environmentNot all physiological differences are adaptationsDepending on the environmental conditions Physiology Past and Present Brief History of Animal PhysiologyHippocrates Father of medicine Greek thinker Aristotle Father of natural history emphasis on relation between structure and function Claudius Galenus Galen First experimental physiologist Wiliam Harvey Identified path of blood circulation by contraction of heart Matthias Schleiden and Theodor SchwannFormulated cell theory states organisms made of units called cells Claude Bernard Discover concept of milieu interieurMilieu interieur Known as internal environment despite changes in external environmentDiscover hemoglobin carries oxygen regulate blood flow by nerves Walter Cannon Discover homeostasisPeter Bartholomew and George Somero Founded field of adaptational biochemistry eg blood anitifreezerTry to understand how animal adapt to hostile environments Subdisciplines in Physiological ResearchCategorizes physiological subdisciplines by 3 waysBiological level of organization CellMolecularSystemOrganismalEcologicalIntegrative Physiology which concern with biological function at different level 1 Cell and molecular physiologistsStudy phenomena occur at cellular leveleg Geneticmetabolism organellessignal transduction 2 System physiologyConcern with how cells and tissues interact to carry out specific functionseg function of different organs 3 Organismal physiologistConcern the way intact animal undertakes specific processbehavioreg Study changes in animal metabolic rate in response to stressor4 Ecological physiologistStudy how physiological properties of animal influence distribution and abundance of specieseg interaction between animal and environment 5 Integrative physiologyStudy physiological processes at variety levels of biological organizationAcross multiple physiological systemslevel of organization Often study processes at more than one levelReductionism Exclusively study single level of biological organization Understand system by studying function of its partsEmergence Known as Wholism the whole is more than sum of its parts Understand system by studying interaction of component parts of systemSubdisciplines which distinguished by process that caused Variation Physiology which concern in how biological function change overtime in response to environmental change
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