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Biological Sciences
Stefan Rusyniak

y Macrophagesphagocyticcells of the immunes system Can tell them apart via 3 things see indentations in nucleus nucleus darker staining and will definitely know its a macrophage if u see it engluphing somethingy In immune response will come and engulph pathogen and signal to other immune systems to come to that sitey Macrophages if they engulph something they cant digest will become immobilized and remain in that siteeg enlulph carbon in lungs cant digest it using the enzymes present and will be immoblilized in klunbg y Sometimes if a particl is very large multiple macrophages will fuse together to form a larger cell and if all the nuclei line up in the form of a perfect horseshoe shapelanghans celly Macrophages are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system Come from monocytes but monocytes can give rise to many diff types of cels like osteoclastsy Can be circulating as a monocyte andif find a pathogenmay land in connective tissue and diff therey Macropages are also antigen presenting cells Once they engulph a pathogen can use the major histocompatibility complex II present on surfacey Also contain lots of lysosomes with many enzymes like proteases to break down the pathogenswhich basically have a ton of protein y Also in order to find the pathogen in the connective tissue macrophage must be able to get through ground substance the stuff that normally localizes an infection because of how dense it is o Uses GAGases collagenases proteases y Also once engulphed pathogen and puts bits of antigen on major histocompatibity complex II signals the rest of the immune system to come o How Releases two types of cytokines o Interleukins signal for a specific type of wbc to come in response to a specific pathogeno Interleukins can target b lymphocytes causing them to convert into a plasma cell and produce a specific antibody in response to that pathogen The specific antibody req is pdetermined by the antigen on the macropgage o Tumor necrosis factor alpha is basically something that activates endothelium making them more permeable and allowing things to pass thropught more easilyy Mast cellnear blood vessels and nerves o Large ovoid cell with large round central nucleus Contains intensely staining metachromatic granules stain with toluidine blue goes from blue to red Mast cells granules contain heparin and histamineHeparin inhibits clot formation recall that macrophages can release tnf alpha increasing permeability though endothelium dont want to counteract thatHistamine is a bronchoconstrictor and a vasodilator Why have vasodilation want to slow the flow of things not so fasthigh pressue Causes endothelial cells to pull away from each other making open pores Get fluid release and as a result localized swelling essentially diluting the pathogenHistamine also causes muscous secretion So now that the plasma cells are actively producing antibodies like IgE and IgG they will be circ in blood stream Comes in contact with a mast cell and will bind to high affinity Fc receptor on surface of mast cell This has really high affinity Any circ pathogens can come in contact with this and bind Once the pathogen bind to two IgEIgG molecules on the surface of the mast cell this cross linking triggers the release of the contents
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