Midterm Study Guide: Chapters 1-5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Silverman- Gavrila, Lorelei( Lori)

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY LAB J Midterm Notes: Lecture 1-5 Lecture 1: Animal Physiology - Animal physiology = study to understand how animals work - ** Knut Schmidt Nielsen ** - Physiologists = study interaction between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems J understand structurefunction of org o How parts of org work together so animals can perform activities and respond to environment o Integrate genome sequences info into functionalevolutionary frame work o How diff animals use similar building blocks for uniquesystems and overcome environmental challenges - Most integrative life sci J based on chemistry, physics, math, molecular bio, eviro bio, ecology, evolutionary bio - Phys integrates all levels of bio organization from molecules to cells and organ system to org o Types of phys: cell and molecular, system, organismal, ecological, integrative - ** see table 1.1 in textbook ** - Physiological diversity in animals results from evolution - Common phys processes: o Animal texting = animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing J use of non-human animals in experiments o Human testing = unethical, very regulated J e.g. twin studies conducted by Mengele in Auschwitz - Animal testing used since prehistoric times J references to it in Greek writing in 2 4 BCE st o Aristotle and Erasistratus one of the 1 to perform animal experiments o oL)ZZ}]]Z ]}L[J physician in 2 CE, dissected pigs and goats in Rome - Major figures of physiology = fernal, Vesalius, Schwann, Bernard, cannon, scolander, prosser, Nielsen, Bartholomew, hachachka and somero - Model species = org studies by community of researchers o Has certain features good for experimenting J e.g. mice = transgenic, unusual anatomical features, squid = large axonneurotransmission, xenopus = large oocytesRNA translation, worm = c. elegans developmenteach cell known o Understanding process in model help to show how process works in other species o Rapid growth in # of species w genome decoded - Mice = best model of inherited human diseases, share 99% genes w humans o Genetically modified mice = model for human diseases o Most commonly used vertebrate bc of size, cost, east handling, fast reproduction - Rats = for physiology, toxicology, and cancer research o Genetic manipulation harder than mice o SAGE project 1 transgenic rat in 2009 - Rabbits = used for production of polyclonal antibodies - Other rodents for animal experiments = guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils - Non-human primatesNHPs: macaques, rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys, owl monkeys, marmosets, baboons, chimps o Used for toxicology J AIDS, hepatitis, neurology, behavior, cognition, reproduction, genetics, xenotransplantation o 1 transgenic primate rhesus macaque in 2001 o Helps polio vaccine development o Help understand development of deep brain stimulation for 9l]LZ}L[Z disease www.notesolution.com- Non-mammal models: o Fish: zebra fish = translucent in embryonic stage o African clawed frog = large oocytes J RNA translation o C. elegans = development J each cell known o Drosophila = genetic manipulation o Crayfish = synaptical plasticity, phasic and tonic differentiation o Sea slug = learning and memory o armadillos - experiment has to 1 be approved by Institutional Board of Ethics - Z[Z)2]Z}L]KoZ Z9 o Reduction = researchers get info from fewer animals or more info from same # of animals J experiment not unnecessarily duplicative o Replacement = prefer non-animal methods if possible, so other methods must be considered and animals only used when necessary o Refinement = minimize potential pain, suffering, distress, and enhance animal welfare J pain relief provided unless it interferes with the study and testing causes as little suffering to animal as possible st - 1 animal protection law passed in British parliament J1822 - Cruelty to Animal Act 1876 = 1 law to regulate animal testing o Legislation promoted by Darwin J ]]Z ]}LZ]ZEZ]]o}o]LZ]2]}LZ}LZZ]}o}28L}} KKLoLZo ]}Z][ - Laboratory Animal Welfare Act 1966 - L]Ko[Z^ ]L]] 9} Z 86 - Guide for Care and Use of Lab Animals published by National Academy of Sciences in US J ZL} L }K}LL]Ko] LZ ZZoo2Z]]ZZ ]L]] ooEZ]][ - Experimentation on a Bird in the Air Pump o Otto von Guericke = air pump inventor in 1650 J place animal in glass globe attached to hand pump, pump air }7ZZ}ZL]Ko[ZL}]}o] o 1 English air pump made for Robert Boyle 1758 J Boyle knew animals need air to live o Lavoisier in 1780s discovered oxygen in air is what supports life J drew analogy between cell respiration and simple combustion - Henry Bergh founded American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ASPCA in US in 1860s - American Anti-vivisection Society AAVS = organizationfounded in 1883 - Animal Welfare and Rights Organizations = PETA J Ppl for Ethical Treatment of Animals, and BUAV J British Union for Abolition of Vivisection - Animal testing controversies since 17 CE - 1655, EdmuLK[,)advocate of Galenic physiology J ZK]Zo}}]]Z ]}Lo Z}]LLLo Z[ - Animal phys can be affect by pain in vivisection so results unreliable - 17 Z ZZ]L]KoZ L[o]Ll }o l} }LZ ]}ZLss - Unclear if invertebrates feel pain - Euthanizing lab animals = induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress: o Inhale gas (e.g. CO2) by being placed in a chamberface mask, withwithout prior sedationanesthesia. o Sedativesanesthetics (e.g. barbiturates) given intravenouslyinhalant. o Amphibians and fish immersed in water containing anesthetic (e.g. tricaine) o Physical methods withwithout sedationanesthesia depend on method o Decapitationbeheading for small rodentsrabbits. o Cervical dislocation (breaking neckspine) for birds, mice, immature rats, rabbits o Maceration (grinding into small pieces) on 1 day old chicks www.notesolution.com
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