Appendicular Skeleton- key points

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

I. APPENDICULAR SKELETON -includes teh boens of upper and lower limbs and the girdles of bones that hold and attach teh upper and lower limbs to the axial skeleton. The pectoral girdles consist of bones that hold the upper limbs in place Pelvic girdle consists of bones that hold the lower limbs in place. Left and right pectoral girdles. Articulate with the trunk Each girdle supports one upper limb Also provide attachment sites for many muscles Promotes upper limb mobility by: !) because the scapula is not directly attaché dto tot he axial skeleton, it movs freely Shallow cavity of shoulder joint permits a wide range of movemtn of upper limbs Scapula Broad flat triangular bone Forms the shoulder blade Spine of the scapula : ridge of boen on the posterior aspect of the scapula. Is continuous with a larger posterior process called the acromion The acromion articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle The coracoids process: found on the anterior side Much smaller The triangular shape of the scapula forms three borders: !)superior border 2) medial border- the edge closest to the vertebrae 3) lateral border- cloases to the axilla (armpit) - between these borders are the superior, inferior and the lateral angles Superior angle – pointed part between the superior and the medial borders Inferior angle ; located between the lateral and medial broders The lateral angle is made of the gleniod cavity The glenoid cavity articulates with the humerus The tubercles on the glenoid cavity serve as attachment sites for the muscles that psotiion the arm and the shoulder CLAVICLE -bone that extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula - the only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton -has a sterna l (medial) end which articulates with the manubrium of the sternum forming the sternoclavicular joint -the acromial end is broad and flattened, it articulates with the acromion of the scapula forming the acromioclavicular joint. -the superior surface is very smooth -but the inferior surface is marked by grooves and ridges for muscle attachmen
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