BIOB33 Midterm 1 Vocab.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOC33H3
Professor
Connie Soros
Semester
Winter

Description
Define Lecture 1  Anatomy (4)  Physiology (2)  Microscopic Anatomy o Cytology + histology o Histology  Macroscopic Anatomy o Surface anatomy, regional anatomy, systemic anatomy  Developmental Anatomy, Embryology, Comparative anatomy  Levels of organization (6) + their descriptions o Which 4 elements (out of how many overall) make up 99% of the body? o Major classes of compounds (5) o Components of the digestive system (6) o How many organ systems? List them + major functions  Anatomical position o Supine o Prone  Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants= specialized regional terms o Name quadrants (4) + organs o Name regions (9)  Sectional Anatomy o 4 cuts o Body Cavities + membranes  Tissues o Over how many cells in the body?  75 trillion o 4 tissue categories o 4 functions of epithelial cells + 3 specializations + 4 types (where they are found and functions)  Development of Epithelia o All epithelia begin as simple epithelia o Cells differentiate into functional epithelial cells + gland cells that may have endocrine or exocrine functions o Complex glands begin to form as epithelial cells grow into underlying tissue o In the formation of an exocrine gland, cells connecting to secretory cells to the surface= duct that carries secretions of the gland cells to the epithelial surface- formation of endocrine glands, connecting cells disappear and the gland cells secrete into blood vessels or into the surrounding tissue fluid Lecture 2  2 types of fluid  Intercellular attachment (3) o Molecules in Tight Junction o Molecules in Anchoring Junctions  CAMS bind to each other and other extracellular material  Proteoglycans link opposing membranes and form a junction with the cytoskeleton within the adjoining cells  Internal surface of the plasma membrane (inside the cell)= thickened protein plaque=dense area= intermediate filaments of cystoskeleton penertrate the plaque to extend throughout the cell for support and strength  Zone Adherens=adhesion belt= sheet-like anchoring junction that stabilizes non-epithelial cells- form of anchoring junction that encircles the cell  Macula adherens (desmosomes)= provides small localized spot-like anchoring junction that stabilizes adjacent epidermal cells (like button/snap, which each cell contributing half the snap) o Molecules in Communication Junctions  Where are they common?  Integumentary system components (6)  Types of tissue in IS (2)  Functions of IS (7)  Divisions of the IS : o Skin (cutaneous membrane)= Epidermis and dermis o Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)= deep to dermis o Accessory structures= hair, nails, exocrine glands o Hypodermis(subcutaneous) Dermis (cutaneous) reticular layer (D) papillary layer (D) Stratum Basale (ED) Stratum spinosum (ED) Stratum granulosum (ED) Stratum lucidum (ED) Stratum Corneum (ED)  Stratum Basale (2 types of cells located here) o 15-30 days from here to top layer o forms epidermial ridges dermal papillae extend into dermis (4 th month of fetal development)  dermatoglyphics  Stratum spinosum o Keratinocytes= macular adherens/desmosomes + tonofibrils (bundles of protein filaments) o Langerhans cells  Stratum granulosum o Last layer with nucleated cells/keratinocytes o Keratinization starts here o 2 proteins produced by keratinocytes (protein functions?)  Stratum lucidum  Stratum corneum o Thickened plasmalemmae o Keratinized/cornified/no organelles and nucleus’/relatively dry and water resistant= unsuitable for microorganisms  Name superficial layer of dermis + its components (3)  Name deep layer of dermis + its components (4)  Subcutaneous layer (aka....)= not technically part of the integument but helps STABILIZE it 2 components  _____needles, ________injections  ACCESSORY STRUCTURES (3) o Structure of hair follicles o Types of hair (3) o Functions of hair (8) o Hair color cause, age, influenced by (3) o Hair growth phases (4) o Glands  Glandular functions (3)  Types of exocrine glands (2)  Sebaceous glands  Sweat glands  apocrine glands (3 types) + merocrine glands  APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS= viscous secretion of complex composition/ ODOUROUS fluid+ strongly influenced by HORMONES + possible function in communication + LIMITED DISTRIBUTION IN AXILLAE, GROIN + NIPPLES  MEROCRINE SWEAT GLANDS= thin secretion of mostly water (sensible perspiration/sweat)+ controlled by nervous system +ALL OVER BODY WITH HIGH CONC. IN PALMS AND FEET  MEROCRINE GLANDS/ECCRINE GLANDS location + function (2) o Nails  Function (1)  Structure (5)  Repairing Injuries to the skin o Step 1: bleeding occurs if dermis is penetrated o Step 2: blod clot/scab forms at surface to restore integrity (insoluble network of fibrin protein from blood proteins during clotting clots color=due to trapped red blood cells  cells of stratum basale undergo rapid divisions and begin to migrate along edges of wound + macrophages patrol damaged area of dermis and phagocytize pathogens and debris  fibroblasts + mesenchymal cells divide rapidly + capillaries follow fibroblast to inc. circulation  combination of blood clot, fibroblasts, extensive capillary network GRANULATION TISSUE o Step 3: Fibroblast activity leads to appearance of collagen fibers and typical ground substance o Step 4: damaged hair follicles/sebaceous/sweat glands are not restored formation of inflexible fibrous noncellular tissue= scar tissue= practical limit of repair  KELOID= thick raised area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny smooth epidermal suface (ex.earlobes) Lecture 3  Development involves (2)  Types of development (2)  Fertilization definition  Function + structure of haploid cells o Spermatozoon  (22 haploid chromosomes + 1 X or Y) o Ovum (corona radiate, zona pellucida) + polar body + secondary oocyte (23 haploid chromosomes, 22 autosomes, second X chromosome, suspended in meiosis 2)  Describe the movement of the ovum and process of fertilization  Describe change in sperm numbers  Fertilization details: o Acrosomal enzymes of multiple sperm create gaps in corona radiate one sperm makes contact with the secondary oocyte after passing through zona pellucida sperm enters cell + membrane fuses with that of the secondary oocyte oocyte activation= cortical granules from oocyte dissolve in cytoplasm changing permeability of the egg + meiosis goes to completion female pronucleus forms male pronucleus + spindle fibers form cleavage division b
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