Anatomy Final Notes.pdf

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Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

1Lecture 6 The Muscular System AxialAppendicular MusculatureThe Skeletal System Articulations The body cannot move without joints Movements are linked to the range of joint actionJoints arthroses are connections between bones that may or may not permit movementTwo bones may be in direct contact with each other or separated by o Cartilageo Fluid o Fibrous tissueJoints are classified based on o Function o Range of motion o Structure o Makeup of the jointClassification of JointsJoints can be classified based on their range of motion function o Synarthrosis immovable jointSutures joints found only in the skullBones are interlocked togethersutural ligament type of unossified connective tissueGomphosis joint between teeth and jaw bonesPeriodontal ligaments of the teethfibrousSynchondrosis joint within epiphysis of boneBinds the diaphysis to the epiphysis syntogether chondrocartilageSynostosis joint between two fused bonesFusion of the three coxal bonesno boundary between fusion totally rigid o Amphiarthroses slightly movable jointsSyndesmosis ligaments that connect two bones but limit their motionBetween the radius and ulna between the tibia and fibula desmosband ie band of ligamentSymphysis bones are separated by a wedge or pad of cartilageBetween the pubic bones of the two coxal bones and intervertebral discsfibrous o Diarthroses freely movable jointsAlso called synovial jointsTypically found at the ends of long bonesExamples of diarthroses joints shoulder joint elbow joint hip joint knee joint Synovial jointsThree main functions1 provide lubrication2 nourish the chondrocytes3shock absorptionAll synovial joints have six basic characteristics o A joint capsule2012 Pearson Education Inc2o The presence of articular cartilages o A joint cavity with synovial fluidlubricates the surfaces of the articular cartilages and reduces friction nourishes the chondrocytes by entering and exiting the articular cartilage due to forces acting on the joint and acts as a shock absorber o A synovial membrane o Accessory structures cartilage ligaments tendons bursae sacssmall fluid filled pockets found where ligaments and tendons rub against other tissues to reduce friction o Sensory nerves and blood vesselsStructural Classification of Synovial Joints Plane joints gliding joints monaxialmovement in only oneplane o Eg CarpalcarpalTarsaltarsalVertebraevertebraeClaviclesternumHinge joints o Flexion and extensionmonaxial o Eg Elbow and knee Pivot joints o Rotational movements including supination and pronationmonaxial o Eg AtlasaxisCondylar joints ellipsoidal joints o Oval articular surface on one bone articulates with a depression on another bone biaxial joint movement in two planes o Eg RadiuscapitulumRadiuscarpalsPhalangesmetacarpalsPhalangesmetatarsalsSaddle joints o Biaxial joints that allow some circumduction angular movement without rotation o Eg PollexmetacarpalBall and socket joints o Triaxial joints angular movement and rotation o Eg Shoulder jointHip joint IntroductionThe skeletal muscle of the body can be subdivided intoAxial musculature o Muscles that position the head and vertebral column o Muscles that move the rib cageAppendicular musculature o Muscles that stabilize or move the appendicular skeleton The Axial MusculatureThe axial muscles can be placed into four groups based on location or function o Muscles of the head and neck o Muscles of the vertebral column o Oblique and rectus muscles o Muscles of the pelvic floor2012 Pearson Education Inc3 Muscles of the Head and Neck o Can be subdivided into several different groupsMuscles of facial expression mouth eye nose scalp neckExtraocular muscles muscles that control eye movementMuscles of mastication chewingMasseterelevates mandible and closes jaws assists in protracting and retracting mandible and moving mandible from side to side originzygomatic arch of zygomatic bone insertionmandibleTemporaliselevates mandible and closes jaws assists in retracting and moving mandible from side to side originalong temporal ljnes of skull insertionmandibleMedial Pterygoidelevates the mandible and closes the jawa or moves the mandible side to side originpalatine bone maxilla insertionmandibleLateral Pterygoidopens jaws protrudes mandible or moves mandible side to side originpalatine bone maxilla insertionmandibleMuscles of the tongueMuscles of the pharynx pharyngeal constrictors laryngeal elevators palatal musclesMuscles of the anterior neckDigastricdepresses mandible opening mouth andor elevates larynx originmandible and temporal bone insertionhyoid boneSternocleidomastoid together they flex the neck alone one side bends neck toward shoulder and turns face to the opposite side sternosternum cleidoclavical mastoidmastoid process of temporal bone originsternum and clavical insertionmastoid process of temporal boneSternohyoiddepresses hyoid bone and larynx originsternum insertionhyoid boneSternothyroiddepresses hyoid bone and larynx originsternum insertionthyroid cartilage of larynxThyrohyoidelevates larynx depresses hyoid bone originthyroid cartilage insertionhyoid boneStylohyoidelevates larynx stylospillar or any slender pointed process also found on radius and ulna originstyloid process of temporal bone insertionhyoid bone Muscles of the Vertebral Column o Back muscles form three distinct layersSuperficial layer extrinsic back muscles move the neckTrapeziusextends neck will come back to more actions for this muscleoriginoccipital bone and spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae insertionclavicle and scapulaLatissimus dorsiextension adduction and medial rotation at shoulder Levator scapulaeelevates scapulaRhomboid musclesadduct ad perform downward rotation of scapulaIntermediate layer extrinsic back muscles move the vertebral columnSerratus posteriorSuperiorelevates ribs enlarges thoracic cavity Inferiorpulls ribs inferiorly also pulls outward opposing the diaphragm2012 Pearson Education Inc
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