Study_Guide_for_Lectures_5_to_8_2013.doc

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
1 BGYC33/CC4 Cardiovascular System Study Guide, Lectures 5-8 (2013) Lecture 5: Regulation of Stroke Volume Topics Cardiac Output Regulation of Stroke Volume Ventricular Contractility End-Diastolic Volume Starling Effect and Starling Curves Starling Curves and Sympathetic Activity Pre-Load Skeletal Muscle Pump Respiratory Pump Sample Questions 1. How many of the following factors would lead to an increase in EDV? a)1, b)2, c)3, d)4, e)5 Factor 1: An increase in heart rate. Factor 2: Sinus tachycardia. Factor 3: Increased pre-load. Factor 4: Diaphragmatic contraction. Factor 5: Decreased vagal tone to the heart. 2. Which of the following would not lead to an increase in stroke volume? a) An increase in ventricular contractility. b) Increased venous return. c) An increase in aortic pressure. d) Expiration. e) Two of the above would not lead to an increase in stroke volume. 3. Sympathetic stimulation of the heart causes the Starling Curve to shift due to a(n) resulting from a(n) in cardiac myocytes. ++ a) Downwards; increase in ventricular contractility; increase in [++ ]i in cardiac myocytes. b) Upwards; decrease in ventricular contractility; increase in [Ca ]i in cardiac myocytes. c) Upwards; increase in ventricular contractility; increase in [Ca ]i in cardiac myocytes. d) Downwards; decrease in ventricular contractility; decrease in [Ca ]i in cardiac myocytes. e) Upwards; increase in ventricular contractility; increased rate of Ca sequestering in the sarcoplasmic reticulum 2 Lecture 6: Regulation of Stroke Volume and Blood Flow Topics Cardiac Output Regulation of Stroke Volume End-Diastolic Volume Filling Time Tachycardia without Sympathetic Stimulation Tachycardia with Sympathetic Stimulation Afterload Blood Flow Measuring Blood Flow Calculating Blood Flow Different Types of Blood Vessels Blood Vessel Compliance Distribution of Blood in the Circulation Pressure Drops within the Systemic and Pulmonary Circuits The Driving Force for Blood Flow Resistance to Blood Flow Factors Affecting Resistance to Blood Flow Vessel Radius Vessel Length Sample Questions 1. Cardiac output cannot increase indefinitely due to increases in because decreases due to a decrease in . This can be countered by . a) Heart rate; stroke volume; ventricular contractility; sympathetic stimulation. b) Heart rate; stroke volume; filling time; sympathetic stimulation. c) Stroke volume; heart rate; filling time; parasympathetic stimulation. d) Stroke volume; heart rate; ventricular contractility; sympathetic stimulation. e) Heart rate; EDV; filling time; parasympathetic stimulation. 2. Veins have a large compliance and are often referred to as volume reservoirs. One of the important functional consequences of this is: a) During circulatory shock, blood is retained in the lower pressure venous reservoir therefore preventing blood loss that would occur under high arterial pressure. b) During exercise, ESV and cardiac output can be increased rapidly. c) During exercise, cardiac output to the gut can be rapidly reduced. d) During exercise, stroke volume and cardiac output can be increased rapidly. e) During haemorrhage, EDV can be increased rapidly. 3 3. Which of the following factors would be expected to have a greater influence on blood flow through a vessel in a developing infant compared to an adult? a) Haematocrit and foetal versus adult haemoglobin. b) Blood vessel length. c) The pressure gradient from the start of the vessel to the end of the vessel. d) Vessel radius. e) Plasma protein content. 4 Lecture 7: Blood Flow Topics Blood Flow Resistance to Blood Flow Factors Affecting Resistance to Blood Flow Blood Viscosity Laminar versus
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