Lec 1 Study Notes

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Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Lecture 1 Study Notes CO = HR x SV SV = Stroke volume the amount of blood pumped by beat CO = Cardiac output the amount of blood pumped per minute BP = CO x PR or BP = (HR x SV) x PR BP = Blood pressure. The main aim is to prevent low blood pressure, which kills very quickly, as opposed to high blood pressure, which takes years PR = Peripheral resistance: resistance to blood flow within circulation that happens primarily in arteries and arterioles Flow of blood from right side of heart (blue: de-oxygenated blood) (red: oxygenated blood): Superiorinferior vena cava Right Atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Arteries Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Bicuspid Valve Left Ventricle AorticSemilunar Valve Aorta Systematic circulation Heart is 4 chambered Conduction System of the heart Sinoatrial Node (SA node): primary pacemaker - group of cells with no resting potential, hence they depolarize spontaneously. This is the beginning of the conduction pathway Internodal Pathways: transmit the conduction from SA node throughout left and right atria Atrioventricular Node (AV node): transmits conduction to the ventricles AV bundleBundle of HIS: transmit conduction down apex of heart to Right and Left Branch Bundles Branch Bundles: transmit conduction to either right ventricle Purkinje fibres or left ventricle Purkinje fibres Purkinje Fibres: cause contraction of ventricles Fill in the pathway: slide 12 - www.notesolution.com
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