EXAM STUDY NOTES.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOC40H3
Professor
Mary Olaveson
Semester
Summer

Description
Coriolis Force  Fictitious force due to rotation of the earth  In northern hemisphere, deflects to the right and left in the southern hemisphere  Strongest at poles, weaker at equator Cumulonimbus  Puffy cloud with rain  Towering thunderstorm cloud Stratocumulas  Layered puffy clouds  Greater or similar horizontal extent than vertical extent horizontal and vertical extent Latent Heat  Energy released due to a change in phase of matter  Heat released when gass condenses to liquid, opposite is true when heat required  Once store has formed, latent heat release provides more fuel for the storm Chinook  Occurs on lee side of mountains in Calgary  Air traveling on windward side reaches a point where the water condenses and cloud is formed, on the leeward side the air warms and is dry which is the result of latent heat release and cloud formation Trade Wind  Between equator and 30N, flows southwest due to the coriolis effect  Surface components of Hadley cell Doldrums  Regions of weak winds in the equatorial region (ICTZ)  Division between north and south Hadley cells Horse Latitudes  30 N and S at the boundary between the Hadley and Ferrel cells  Winds are weak in this area and boats from Europe were unable to return to Europe so jettisoned horses  Descending air Polar Front  Division between Polar cells and Ferrel cells  Ascending air ITCZ  Division between north and south Hadley cells  Ascending air Hadley Cell  Part of global circulation  Air rises from the surface at equator, travels poleward and sinks at 30 N or S Ferrel Cell  30-60 N or S  Air moves on the surface to the poles and to the equator in the upper troposphere Land/Sea breeze  Differential headting of land and sea on a daily basis  Air moves towards land from the sea in the day, away from land at night Fujita Scale  Scale of tornado strength  F0-F6 in terms of intensity of damage Layers of the Atmosphere  Temperature decresases in the troposphere  Temperature increases in the stratosphere  Temperature decreases in the mesosphere  Temperature increases in the thermosphere Hail is sometimes formed in cumulonimbus clouds The QBO affects stratospheric winds Dust storms only occur in dry areas Thunderstorms sometimes cause dust storms Firestorms only occur in dry areas FALSE T. Ralph Pacific Hurricanes S.A. Isard Midlatitude Cyclones Where do midlatitude storms which affect Toronto originate? What percentage is locally generated? What is seasonal distribution of these storms? Describe the one cell theory?  Developed by George Hadley  Claimed earth consisted of a large Hadley cell in N and S hemisphere  Air rose at equator region and sinks at poles  Latent heat and sensible heat are responsible for the energy transportation which rise from the equator and sink at polar regions  Doesn’t take into consideration earth’s tilt, rotation and continentiality Polar front theory  Stationary front lacks energy for a storm to develop  Cold front typically the division between cP and mT air  mT air is forced over colder air mass with a slope of 1:50 and cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds form resulting in heavy precipitation  most violent weather occurs along cold front and can bring thunderstorms and tornadoes  warm front is division between mT and mP air and is the leading edge of midlatitude cyclone  because slope of warm air is shallower, lifted above cold air and forms stratus and nimbostratus clouds  occluded front is when cold front catches up with warm front  st
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