Lecture 1

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Biological Sciences
Herbert Kronzucker

BIOC65: Lecture 1 – September 13 , 2011, 2:10 pm 1 DRINKING WATER IN PLASTIC BOTTLES = not a good idea to use plastic bottles; when they’re sitting around at an elevated temperature, e.g in a car, it over heats causing compounds to be released and be dissolved in water. These will be ingested, make its way to the liver which will not be able to detoxify the compounds and start to accumulate in the fatty tissues URBAN MYTH OF DRINKING 6-8 GLASSES OF WATER = There is not an absolute need to drink 6-8 glasses of water. As long you consume an equivalent of 6-8 glasses of liquids, it can be in any form. For example, coffee, watermelon, etc. COMPOUNDS IN PLASTICS = bisphenyl –A: chemical that is highly soluble in lipids. It finds the lipids in membranes and after it finds the membranes it will find the larger deposits of lipids in the body: adipose tissues; particularly in women in the breast tissue. It will accumulate there with much of a chance of excretion over the entire lifetime. There will be accumulation of many chemicals after drinking water from plastic bottles which can predispose you to many types of cancers. HISTORY OF TOXICOLOGY: DINOPURE = water was not as pure as when the dinosaurs were around. What is toxicology? Toxicology comes from Greek words; toxon, toxikon which was a poisonous substance into which arrowheads were dipped and the suffix –ology, from word logos which means study of or treatise • toxocopharmacon = arrow that a poison can be based with; laced the arrows with poison from dart frogs. History dates back about 400,000 years; aprox. when humans came around. Since this time, humans have used fire. Earliest dated use of fire is as old as human species itself (the Homo sapiens) FIRE = Essence of chemistry in cigarette smokes is not all that different from the essence of chemistry in smokes when burning wood or coal in a fire, when you go to a BBQ. Going to 2-3 BBQs in a year is much more dangerous to you than other dangers you hear in the media. Need to detoxify from them! Wood fires (still widespread in Canada) need to be well ventilated. If you can smell the fire, it’s horrible for you. There are 6000 chemicals that have toxicological potency that are released through smokes (cigarette or fire), many of which in the domains of cancer. E.g benzopyrene Many chemicals in antidepressants are also just as bad as chemicals in wood fires. Metals: 7 metals = gold, copper, silver, tin, lead, mercury, & iron: METALS = like GOLD – discovered about 9000 years ago and also used; shiniest of all metals known; used the metal to adorn oneself; discovered in the Balkan region; Neolithic = gold found in corpses The first emperor of china (Qin Shi Huang) died in 210 BC, at an age of 49. He was obsessed with immortality. He is also responsible for the first version of the wall of china and the terracotta soldiers.Although he was a cruel king, he managed to unite the whole of China. BIOC65: Lecture 1 – September 13 , 2011, 2:10 pm 2 One of his doctors recommended to use quick silver (mercury) on a daily basis. The reason he died so early was due to mercury poisoning, which was supposed to keep him immortal. He had inability to move (ataxia) in the last few years of his life. Beethoven = also died early. One of his students cut himself of Bethoven’s hair, preserved it in a box which was discovered 15 years ago. He was thought to die of syphilis who was subjected to mercury treatment (recommended by the doctors at his time) • His hair was analyzed and found that his hair was composed of lead (or plumbum in Latin). Disease is called plumbism for lead poisoning. He lived in a house where most of the pipes were made of lead. Lead can leach out and make it in your blood stream. It was also used as a sweetener. • Significant health concern to have lead in pipes in the house. • Sculptor of Bethoven’s face also died of metal poisoning who used metals to make his sculpts. Bronze = tin and copper Egyptians = obsessed with beautifying themselves. They did not live long because the things they used to beautify themselves is what killed them eventually. In general if they made in their 30s they made it quite far; 40 year olds were thought as though they were 100s of years old. • Yellow painting = used sulphur for paintings; ancient Egyptians also used sulphur powder for agriculture to ward off pests in the fields. • The cosmetics were buried with the Egyptians. • The use of nanotechnology by ancient Egyptians = used lead to dye their hair black; in combination with hydroxide solution. Filled the hair with lead sulphide (sulphur comes from the protein in the hair, keratin to be precise). Under alkaline conditions, the formation of lead sulphide precipitates outside the hair and also penetrates through the cross-section of the hair. Colour of lead sulphide is black • Hair dye in modern times = no lead in hair dyes; lead performs the function of melanin; lead has been replaced with BISMUTH SULPHIDE; also found in cough syrups like Pepto-Bismol; it will also penetrate through the cross-section of hair and make it darker • Egyptians did not have a long life due to the chemicals they used: Egyptians also used lead as eyeliners, mascara. Galina = lead sulphide; obsession with beauty was intense so these substances were used often during the day Clostridium Botulinum = used to obtain a poison called Botox, which is used to inject in the face, or other parts of the body. Do not touch it. Botox does not last for very long, therefore good way to make money. • What is botox? Simple protein that comes from this bacteria called Clostridium botulinum (gram +) that paralyzes muscles when botox comes in contact with them by preventing actions of acetylcholine. By preventing the release of acetylecholine from the presynaptic membranes so that neuro muscular junctions cannot sends signals for muscle contraction. • Wrinkles occur from muscle contraction – through smiling, talking, laughing, weeping. BIOC65: Lecture 1 – September 13 , 2011, 2:10 pm 3 • People get stretch marks due to weight gain or pregnancy, or after working out because did not warm up properly. Skin gets warmed up, and stretched too rapidly. As a result you start to disintegrate the proteins in skin like keratin; the collagen also gets broke
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