Midterm Study Guide.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Melissa Whitfield Aslund

Study Suggestions and Exam Notes Lecture 1 • Be able to define Toxicology, Environmental Toxicology, Ecotoxicology • Be able to describe Paracelcus’contribution to toxicology (mainly, dose makes the poison) • What was the impact of Silent Spring? • What were the toxicants behind the effects in the ecological disasters in Minamata, Chernobyl, Bhopal? What was a common thread behind these disasters (poor safety practices) Lecture 2 • Why did the researchers not originally determine the cause of Minamata disease? How was the cause ultimately confirmed? • Definitions of Toxin, Toxicant, Poison, Xenobiotic, LD50, LC50, LOAEL, NOAEL, Potency, Efficacy, Acute, Chronic, Sub-chronic, Placebo, Nocebo, Systemic Toxicity • What are standard endpoints in acute and chronic toxicity testing? • Pros and Cons of Acute Toxicity testing? • Make sure you can follow the logic and units in the math examples • Shortcomings of LD50 approach? • Difference between effective and toxic dose; between threshold and non-threshold toxicity? • Explain two instances where low dose may be beneficial • Give an example of a placebo effect? A nocebo effect? • How can rate of elimination impact toxicity? • Describe the three potential types of chemical interaction Lecture 3 • What are the four elements of disposition? • What are three key routes of exposure/ sites of absorption for humans with respect to environmental toxicology? • Are compounds more likely to be absorbed in GI tract when they are ionized or non-ionized? What controls degree of ionization? • How does size influence absorption from GI? • Define: Bioaccessibility, Bioavailability, paracellular, intracellular • How does particle size influence particle deposition into the lungs? • What are the two major layers of the skin? What is the rate limiting barrier for dermal absorption? • What are 5 factors influencing dermal absorption? • What is the K ? How is it related to polarity/lipophilicity? ow • Explain the first-pass effect. Describe some pathways that bypass this effect • What are the four primary sites for toxicant storage in the body? • What is the main objective of biotransformation of organic contaminants? Describe Phase I, Phase II • Two reasons why infants may be more susceptible to toxicants? • Can biotransformation increase toxicity? • Describe the major and minor routes of excretion. Lecture 4 • What effects, at the individual level, are we most interested in in ecotoxicology? • Define EC ,50C , 25at kind of effects might be measured? • Why study earthworms? • What makes a good test organism? • What are some of the key requirements in the earthworm acute toxicity test? Limitations of earthworm testing? • Why is it important for the performing laboratory to regularly assess the LC50 of a reference substance? • Why do an acute test? Why do a chronic test? What are some advantages and benefits of each? • Define: systemic pesticide, biomarker
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