Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 5th Ed. - Ch. 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

Chapter 1 Notes Physiology: study of the normal fning of a living organism & its component parts, including all its chemical & physical processes o In contrast, anatomy is the study of STRUCTURE, w a lot less emphasis on fn o physiology and anatomy cant really be separated though, as fn of a tissue or an organ is closely related to its structure, and the structure presumably evolved to provide an efficient physical base for its fn Physiological Systems to understand the relationship bw anatomy and physiology, we must first look at the component parts of the human body levels of organization of living organisms: o Atoms Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems Organisms Pops of one species Ecosystem of diff species Biosphere Atoms link to form molecules Cell: smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes Cells are collections of molecules separated from the external envir by a barrier called the cell (or plasma) membrane Simple organisms composed of only 1 cell Complex organisms composed of many cells w diff structural and fnal specializations Tissues: collections of cells that carry out related fns Tissues form structural and fnal units known as organs Gps of organs integrate their fns to create organ systems Integumentary sys: composed of the skin o Separates the bodys internal environment from the external environment (the outside world) Musculoskeletal sys: provides support and body movement 4 systems exchange materials bw the internal and external environments: o respiratory sys: exchanges gases o digestive sys: takes up nutrients and water and gets rid of wastes o urinary sys: removes excess water and waste material o reproductive sys: produces eggs or sperm 4 systems extend throughout the body: o circulatory sys: distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels o nervous and endocrine systems: coordinate body fns o immune sys: protects the internal environment from foreign invaders Function and Process function and process = 2 related concepts in physiology: o function of a physiological sys or event is the why of the sys or event why does the sys exist & why does the event happen? this way of thinking is known as the teleological approach to science o physiological processes or mechanisms are the how of a sys mechanistic approach to physiology examines process Homeostasis
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