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Biological Sciences
Michelle Aarts

CITRIC ACID CYCLE: The acetyl CoA that enters the citric cycle is not the one that leaves as CO2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and other dehydrogenases are multiprotein complexes-decarboxylate the carbon chain using the decarboxylation energy to drive other reactions fwd enery requiring step: addition of Coenzyme A Two decarboxylation reactions.--> full oxidation of glucose; 2 Cs leave in form of co2 Mostly energy in form of ATP and NADH, these provide electrons to ETC The reason that citric cycle can go fwd are the early reactionsthey have a very large ve free energy, they provide and pull rxns like citrate synthase forward Citrate synthase reaction is pulled fwrd and has ve free energy because of the cleavage of the thioester bond , release of CoA from acetyl-CoA..means citrate cycle is always favourable even when reactants are limited. Net actual free energy is neutral is not taking energy or wasting energy to produce NADH 3 NADH produced Acetyl-CoA and in pyruvate dehydrogenase rxn. 2.5 ATP1NADH MOLECULE FADH2- is a bound prosthetic,it cant leave the enzyme, therefore, it must give up its electrons to regenerate FAD ,usually it gives its electrons to NADH in a soluble protein i.e pyruvate dehydrogenasein membrane bound, it gives it to Co
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