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Chemistry Post Midterm Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jamie Donaldson

Chapter 15 Acids & Bases General Properties Acid Base Sour taste Bitter taste Ability to dissolve many metals Slippery feel Ability to turn litmus paper blue Ability turn litmus paper red red blue Ability to neutralize bases Ability to neutralize acids Arrhenius Definition Acid Base Substance that produces H ions in + Substance that produces OH in - (aq) solution (aq) solution Ex. HCl H + Cl - Ex. NaOH Na + OH + - Bronsted-Lowry Definition Acid Base Proton (H ion) donor Proton (H ion) acceptor + - + - Ex. HCl + H O 2H O + Cl3 Ex. NH + 3 O 2H 4 + OH Becomes conjugate base Becomes conjugate acid Amphoteric substances that can as acids or bases Conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid any base to which proton has been added Conjugate base any acid from which proton has been removed HA + H O 2 H O + A3 + - Equilibrium RIGHT strong acid completely ionizes Equilibrium LEFT weak acid partially ionizes Strong Acids Hydrochloric acid HCl Hydrobromic acid HBr Hydriodic acid HI Nitric acid HNO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4 Sulfuric acid H SO 2 di4rotic + - Weak Acids HA + H O H2O + A 3ations Partial ionization attraction between H & A strong favors reverse acid weak Stronger acid weaker conjugate base & vice versa Hydrofluoric acid HF
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