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CHMA11H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Alkali Metal


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA11H3
Professor
Jamie Donaldson
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 15 Acids & Bases
General Properties
AcidBase
Sour taste
Ability to dissolve many metals
Ability to turn litmus paper blue 
red
Ability to neutralize bases
Bitter taste
Slippery feel
Ability turn litmus paper red 
blue
Ability to neutralize acids
Arrhenius Definition
AcidBase
Substance that produces H+ ions in
(aq) solution
Ex. HCl H+ + Cl-
Substance that produces OH- in
(aq) solution
Ex. NaOH Na+ + OH-
Bronsted-Lowry Definition
AcidBase
Proton (H+ ion) donor
Ex. HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
Becomes conjugate base
Proton (H+ ion) acceptor
Ex. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
Becomes conjugate acid
Amphoteric substances that can as acids or bases
Conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid any base to which proton has been added
Conjugate base any acid from which proton has been removed
HA + H2O H3O+ + A-
Equilibrium RIGHT strong acid completely ionizes
Equilibrium LEFT weak acid partially ionizes
Strong Acids
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Hydrobromic acid HBr
Hydriodic acid HI
Nitric acid HNO3
Perchloric acid HClO4
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 diprotic
Weak Acids HA + H2O H3O+ + A- cations
Partial ionization attraction between H+ & A- strong favors reverse acid weak
Stronger acid weaker conjugate base & vice versa
Hydrofluoric acid HF
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Acetic acid HC2H3O2 CH3COOH
Formic acid HCHO2
Sulfurous acid H2SO3 diprotic
Carbonic acid H2CO3 diprotic
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 triprotic
Acid Ionization Constant (Ka) equilibrium constant for ionization reaction of weak acid
Ion Product Constant for Water (Kw) = 1.0 x 10-14
Acidic solution [H3O+] > [OH-]
Basic solution [OH-] > [H3O+]
pH = -log[H3O+]
pH = 7 neutral
pH < 7 acidic
pH > 7 basic
pOH = -log[OH
-]
pH + pOH = 14.00
pKa = -logKa
Smaller pKa stronger acid
Strong Bases
Lithium hydroxide LiOH
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Potassium hydroxide KOH
Strontium hydroxide [Sr(OH)2]
Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]
Barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2]
Weak Bases B + H2O BH+ + OH- anions
Carbonate ion CO32-
Methylamine CH3NH2
Ethylamine C2H5NH2
Ammonia NH3
Bicarbonate ion hydrogen carbonate HCO3-
Pyridine - C5H5
Aniline C6H5NH2
Base Ionization Constant (Kb) quantification of extent of ionization of weak base
Ka X Kb = Kw
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