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Midterm

Chemistry Post Midterm Textbook Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA11H3
Professor
Jamie Donaldson

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Chapter 15 Acids & Bases
General Properties
AcidBase
Sour taste
Ability to dissolve many metals
Ability to turn litmus paper blue 
red
Ability to neutralize bases
Bitter taste
Slippery feel
Ability turn litmus paper red 
blue
Ability to neutralize acids
Arrhenius Definition
AcidBase
Substance that produces H+ ions in
(aq) solution
Ex. HCl H+ + Cl-
Substance that produces OH- in
(aq) solution
Ex. NaOH Na+ + OH-
Bronsted-Lowry Definition
AcidBase
Proton (H+ ion) donor
Ex. HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
Becomes conjugate base
Proton (H+ ion) acceptor
Ex. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
Becomes conjugate acid
Amphoteric substances that can as acids or bases
Conjugate acid-base pair
Conjugate acid any base to which proton has been added
Conjugate base any acid from which proton has been removed
HA + H2O H3O+ + A-
Equilibrium RIGHT strong acid completely ionizes
Equilibrium LEFT weak acid partially ionizes
Strong Acids
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Hydrobromic acid HBr
Hydriodic acid HI
Nitric acid HNO3
Perchloric acid HClO4
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 diprotic
Weak Acids HA + H2O H3O+ + A- cations
Partial ionization attraction between H+ & A- strong favors reverse acid weak
Stronger acid weaker conjugate base & vice versa
Hydrofluoric acid HF
www.notesolution.com
Acetic acid HC2H3O2 CH3COOH
Formic acid HCHO2
Sulfurous acid H2SO3 diprotic
Carbonic acid H2CO3 diprotic
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 triprotic
Acid Ionization Constant (Ka) equilibrium constant for ionization reaction of weak acid
Ion Product Constant for Water (Kw) = 1.0 x 10-14
Acidic solution [H3O+] > [OH-]
Basic solution [OH-] > [H3O+]
pH = -log[H3O+]
pH = 7 neutral
pH < 7 acidic
pH > 7 basic
pOH = -log[OH
-]
pH + pOH = 14.00
pKa = -logKa
Smaller pKa stronger acid
Strong Bases
Lithium hydroxide LiOH
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Potassium hydroxide KOH
Strontium hydroxide [Sr(OH)2]
Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]
Barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2]
Weak Bases B + H2O BH+ + OH- anions
Carbonate ion CO32-
Methylamine CH3NH2
Ethylamine C2H5NH2
Ammonia NH3
Bicarbonate ion hydrogen carbonate HCO3-
Pyridine - C5H5
Aniline C6H5NH2
Base Ionization Constant (Kb) quantification of extent of ionization of weak base
Ka X Kb = Kw
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15 Acids & Bases General Properties Acid Base Sour taste Bitter taste Ability to dissolve many metals Slippery feel Ability to turn litmus paper blue Ability turn litmus paper red red blue Ability to neutralize bases Ability to neutralize acids Arrhenius Definition Acid Base Substance that produces H ions in + Substance that produces OH in - (aq) solution (aq) solution Ex. HCl H + Cl - Ex. NaOH Na + OH + - Bronsted-Lowry Definition Acid Base Proton (H ion) donor Proton (H ion) acceptor + - + - Ex. HCl + H O 2H O + Cl3 Ex. NH + 3 O 2H 4 + OH Becomes conjugate base Becomes conjugate acid Amphoteric substances that can as acids or bases Conjugate acid-base pair Conjugate acid any base to which proton has been added Conjugate base any acid from which proton has been removed HA + H O 2 H O + A3 + - Equilibrium RIGHT strong acid completely ionizes Equilibrium LEFT weak acid partially ionizes Strong Acids Hydrochloric acid HCl Hydrobromic acid HBr Hydriodic acid HI Nitric acid HNO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4 Sulfuric acid H SO 2 di4rotic + - Weak Acids HA + H O H2O + A 3ations Partial ionization attraction between H & A strong favors reverse acid weak Stronger acid weaker conjugate base & vice versa Hydrofluoric acid HF www.notesolution.com
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