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CHMB41H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sodium Hydroxide, Eutectic System, Fractional Distillation


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMB41H3
Professor
Effiette Sauer
Study Guide
Final

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Lab 1 Distillation
Distillation:
Process of boiling liquid to vapour then condensing back to liquid (=distillate)
Bulb is under side arm of distillate head
Simple distillation
for pure compounds, distilling miscible or immiscible liquids
Fractional distillation
for miscible liquids, azeotropes
Azeotrope:
solution that does not behave as an ideal solution and does not obey Raoult's law, behaves like a pure liquid, distills at
constant temperature and composition
Raoult's Law:
Equilibrium between liquid and vapour pressure of pure substance --> not related to volume
Pa=Xa*Pa
Boiling point:
Temperature at which vapour pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
Theoretical Plate:
region along the fractional column where liquid and vapour phase are in equilibrium
#Theoretical Plate = Rate of column efficiency
Separating liquids must have a difference of 20 deg C
Distill at 1-1.5 ml/min
Prelab:
Distill slowly to keep equilibrium --> avoid superheating + poor separation
Thermometer position --> to get bathed in true bp temperature with condensed droplet
≤ 2/3: prevent bumping, slower distillation by little SA
≥ 1/3: prevent dry flask, crack or explode (dried ether)
Remember:
Grease joints, add new boiling chips, put foil on fractionating column, bulb position, clamp RB flask, clamp condenser,
graduated cylinder position
Lab 2 Extraction
Trimyristine extracted from Myristica fragrans from myristic acid (III) and glycerol
Reflux:
conservation of liquid volume in the cycle of evaporating liquid to vapour and condensing again to speed up reaction (thru
heat)
Gravity filtration:
Use glass pipet because there is no loss of yield, unlike filter paper
Used acetone because water has low bp and low mp (evaporate)
Prelab:
Use diethyl ether vs acetone because S in ether, I in acetone --> force out Trymyristine crystals
Fat vs oil --> liquid or solid at room temp. Trimyristine is saturated (no double bonds)
Impurities in a mixture act as impurities on each other --> no crystals
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