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CHMB41H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Sodium Hydroxide, Eutectic System, Fractional Distillation

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Effiette Sauer
Study Guide

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Lab 1 Distillation
Process of boiling liquid to vapour then condensing back to liquid (=distillate)
Bulb is under side arm of distillate head
Simple distillation
for pure compounds, distilling miscible or immiscible liquids
Fractional distillation
for miscible liquids, azeotropes
solution that does not behave as an ideal solution and does not obey Raoult's law, behaves like a pure liquid, distills at
constant temperature and composition
Raoult's Law:
Equilibrium between liquid and vapour pressure of pure substance --> not related to volume
Boiling point:
Temperature at which vapour pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
Theoretical Plate:
region along the fractional column where liquid and vapour phase are in equilibrium
#Theoretical Plate = Rate of column efficiency
Separating liquids must have a difference of 20 deg C
Distill at 1-1.5 ml/min
Distill slowly to keep equilibrium --> avoid superheating + poor separation
Thermometer position --> to get bathed in true bp temperature with condensed droplet
≤ 2/3: prevent bumping, slower distillation by little SA
≥ 1/3: prevent dry flask, crack or explode (dried ether)
Grease joints, add new boiling chips, put foil on fractionating column, bulb position, clamp RB flask, clamp condenser,
graduated cylinder position
Lab 2 Extraction
Trimyristine extracted from Myristica fragrans from myristic acid (III) and glycerol
conservation of liquid volume in the cycle of evaporating liquid to vapour and condensing again to speed up reaction (thru
Gravity filtration:
Use glass pipet because there is no loss of yield, unlike filter paper
Used acetone because water has low bp and low mp (evaporate)
Use diethyl ether vs acetone because S in ether, I in acetone --> force out Trymyristine crystals
Fat vs oil --> liquid or solid at room temp. Trimyristine is saturated (no double bonds)
Impurities in a mixture act as impurities on each other --> no crystals
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