First part is devoted to a historical and theoretical discussion, largely concentrates on. Preoccupation of the two chapters in part 1 with the shape of the city is echored throughout the volume. All contributions to the volume acknowledge difficulties in urban policy making due to the inherent complexity, uncertainty and contradictions of cities complexity and contradictions. Chapter 1 introduces the seven principles or properties that we believe comprise the essence of the city. These chracteristics pertain to cities of the past, present and as far as we are able to forsee the future. Six of these principles-production, proximity, reproduction, capitalization, place and governance-relate to the human dimensions of the urban phenomenon. Seventh property, environment, by which we mean the biophysical environment refers to the physical and natural features of cities. All urban places have distinctive environments that explain their location, site or situation and that contribute to making them good places to live and do business.