CITB01 Midterm Preparation.docx

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City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

Midterm Preparation What is the historical development of cities in Canada since European colonization? Historical developments: Mercantile period (1600-1800) Agricultural expansion (1800-1850) Canada’s industrialization (1850-1945) The postwar economic boom (1945-1975) MERCANTILE PERIOD (1600-1800) • Canada as part of a colonial trading system • Population and settlements remained small • Staples Theory (Harold Innis) • Emergence of small-scale subsistence farming AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION (1800-1850) • Lumber had become the dominant export • Significant population growth • Forestry industry cleared land for agricultural development • The economic base of towns diversified • Early industrial development • The urban form remained compact CANADA’S INDUSTRIALIZATION (1850-1945) • Westward (agricultural) expansion • Confederation (1867) • First National Policy (1879) • Industrial development of the “heartland” • Emergence of a “heartlandhinterland” split • Diversification of Canada’s urban form THE FORDIST-KEYNESIAN ERA/ The postwar economic boom (1945-1975) • Mass production/mass consumption • The government encouraged homeownership and the consumption of consumer goods • Beginning of large-scale suburbanization • Car-oriented urban development • Middle-class suburbanization contributed to a “filtering down” of the inner city housing stock Eg. TORONTO BOOM TOWN NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA (1951) What social and economic factors influenced urban development in Canada over time? - Economically, the Great Depression influenced Canada’s urban development: GREAT DEPRESSION (1929-1939) • Planning slowed down or came to a halt • The Town Planning Institute ceased operations in 1932 • Unemployment relief programs • Prairie Farmers Rehabilitation Administration (1935) • The League for Social Reconstruction pushed for social programs and welfare - Social factors: Commission of Conservation: 1909-1921 World War II: 1940-1945 Reconstruction:1945-1955 Consolidation and Confrontation: 1965-1980 Neoconservatism: 1980-1990 Healthy Communities Sustainable Development: 1987 What are the defining characteristics of the Canadian urban system today? Uneven development in the urban system. CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS: • Canada has become an “urban nation” • Urbanization continues, albeit with a different geography • Metropolitan concentration/dominance: urban growth is concentrated in five regions • Pronounced contrast between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of the country What are the dominant planning challenges of Canadian cities today? (What are the underlying factors that contribute to the uneven development of Canada’s urban system at the beginning of the 21st century?) THE UNDERLYING FACTORS: -demographic trends (e.g. immigration) and economic restructuring What city problems/concerns contributed to the emergence of modern planning ideas? The planning concerns for the burgeoning cities were rooted in four different perceptions of city problems: major problems like shabby appearance of citiespushed the notion of the City Beautiful + redesign of major streets and public areas in existing cities; deterioration of living conditionsout of this concern came the notion of Garden Cities, wholly new communities designed to allow new patterns of living in less congested surroundings; loss of the natural environmentled to the Parks Movement, which built public
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