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City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

What is the historical development of cities in Canada since European colonizationMercantile period 16001800 Canada as part of a colonial trading system Population and settlements remained small Staples Theory Harold Innis Canadian development depending on staple commodities which link Canada to EuropeEmergence of smallscale subsistence farming The urban form of the small Canadian settlements of the time was pedestrianoriented and in most cases adhered to gridiron road plansAgricultural expansion 18001850 Lumber had become the dominant export Significant population growth Forestry industry cleared land for agricultural development The economic base of towns diversified Early industrial development The urban form remained compactAgriculture dominant the urban form market and service centers developed to serve the rural population Early Kingston was a larger city than Toronto but it was in a lowyield agricultural zone Toronto rapidly overtook Kinston largely by virtue of its location in a rich agricultural beltCanadas industrialization 18501945 Westward agricultural expansion Confederation 1867First National policy 1879Industrial development of the heartlandmain street Quebec CityWindsor corridor Emergence of a heartlandhinterland split Canadas central parts could no longer be explained simply by the staple modelDiversification of Canadas urban form streetcar 1861 expansions in Toronto and Montreal CBD a zone of transition with a mixed and changing landuse pattern residential neighborhoods segregated along lines of income and ethnicityThe postwar economic boom 19451975Fordist and Keynesian Mass productionmass consumptionThe government encouraged homeownership and the purchase of consumer goodsgovernment redistribution programs stimulation of household expenditure Keynesian used expenditure to stimulate the economyBeginning of largescale suburbanization monofunctional zones superblocks bounded by arterial roads accommodation of the carCaroriented urban developmentlead to the rise in residential space and singlefamily home ownership lowdensity environmentThe government stimulated suburban development through a mortgage subsidy
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