Mythology Midterm Notes.pdf

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Classical Studies
Douglas Frayne

MYTHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES CLASS 1-6 Key Words for lesson 1 Egypt 1. Egypt as gift of the Nile: Ca. 880 km from the Mediterranean to Aswan 2. Upper Egypt vs. Lower Egypt ▯ - Upper Egypt: Aswan to Cairo = 720 km ▯ - Lower Egypt (Delta): Mediterranean to Cairo = 180km, north-south; 250km, ▯ east-west ▯ - "The Two Lands" (Upper and Lower Egypt) ▯ - Only 3.6% normally inhabitable ▯ -The "Red Land" (the desert) and the "Black Land" (the irrigated and sown land) 3. Sources of the Nile: ▯ - White Nile (Uganda) and Blue Nile (Ethiopia) - The two Niles meet at Khartoum ▯ - The Nile flows north through the desert, towards the Mediterranean 4. Khartoum 5. Nile flows north through the desert, towards the Mediterranean 6. Egypt isolated by natural borders ▯ - In the north, the Mediterranean Sea was a formidable barrier ▯ - In the north-east, the Sinai separated Egypt from its eastern neighbours ▯ - To the east, the Eastern desert protected Egypt from invasion via the Red Sea ▯ - In the south, at Aswan (the southern frontier of ancient Egypt), was the first of five ▯ Cataracts ▯ - To the west, the Libyan desert protected Egypt from the Libyan tribes 7. The Nomes as provinces of Ancient Egypt ▯ - about 42 nomes ▯ - Upper Egypt had 22 nomes while Lower Egypt had 20 nomes ▯ - each was managed by a nomarch 8. Continental Drift ▯ - all continents use to fit together like a puzzle ▯ - due to tectonic plates, they all split apart 9. Orographic rainfall ▯ - when a parcel of air containing water vapour gets to a mountain (or pyramid), it is ▯ then forced upwards ▯ - as the parcel of air is forced upwards, it expands and also cools ▯ - as it cools, it becomes saturated because of the amount of water it can hold ▯ decreases, so the water vapour begins to condense and finally falls as rain 10. The “Wet Sahara” theory ▯ - explains how flora and fauna migrated between Eurasia and Africa via a ▯ Levantine land bridge ▯ - the theory observes that extended periods of abundant rainfall lasting many ▯ thousand of years in Africa are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase, during ▯ which larger lakes and more rivers existed ▯ - This causes changes in the type of animals found in the area ▯ - migration along the river corridor was halted when, during a desert phase 1.8-0.8 ▯ million years ago, the Nile ceased to flow completely and possibly flowed only ▯ temporarily in other periods due to geologic uplift of the Nile River region 11.Winds blow SW over Arabian Peninsula brining no rain to Egypt Mesopotamia 1. Near East vs. Middle East: applies primarily to the ancient world ▯ - a geographical term that covers different countries for archeologists and ▯ historians, on the other hand, and for political scientists, economists, and ▯ journalists, on the other ▯ - the term originally applied to the Balkan states in Eastern Europe, but now ▯ generally describes the countries of Western Asia between Mediterranean Sea ▯ and Iran, especially in historical contexts ▯ - the term, as used by Western archeologists, geographers, and historians, refers ▯ to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey) ▯ - "Ancient Near East": refers to the cultures of the Near East until the conquest of ▯ the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great ▯ - Middle East: refers mostly to the medieval and modern worlds, when Islam ▯ becomes the dominant culture of the region ▯ - The term Near East and Middle East are based on a European geographic ▯ perspective 2. Rain from the Mediterranean falls in the winter months in the mountains of Turkey and thus they serve as the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers which flow southerly down through Iraq 3. The soil in southern Iraq becomes too salty as the irrigation water evaporates, rendering it useless for cultivation 4. Babylon Greatest City in Ancient Times 5. The Story of the Tower of Babylon in the Bible 6. Movies Depicting Babylon ▯ - Fritz Lang Metropolis▯ ▯ - D. W. Griffiths Intolerance 7. Basic languages of Ancient Iraq: ▯ - Sumerian: - was known in two dialects eme.gir7 "noble language" and eme-SAL ▯ "thin, or high-pitched language," the latter being the dialect that goddesses spoke ▯ in mythical texts ▯ ▯ - the sumerians called themselves the sag-gi6-ga "the black-headed ones" ▯ ▯ - this language is not Semitic. It is a so-called agglutinating language, like ▯ ▯ Turkish, Hungarian, Finnish and Japanese ▯ ▯ - this is a term in the typology of languages that contrasts with inflecting ▯ ▯ languages, like the ▯ Indo-European and Semitic languages ▯ ▯ - in agglutinating (or agglutinative) language words are composed by ▯ ▯ stringing forms ▯together, often into quite lengthy sequences ▯ ▯ - sumerian has no known relation to any other language. Similarly the origin ▯ ▯ of the Sumerians is unknown. The intriguing question keeps returning into the ▯ ▯ literature but has so ▯far unsatisfactory answers have appeared ▯ ▯ - The Sumerians: ▯ ▯ - created urban civilization in southern Iraq and cuneiform writing system ▯ ▯ - flowering of Sumerian civilization and language in third millennium ▯ ▯ - Sumerian language dies out at the beginning of the second millennium ▯ ▯ - Sumerian survives as liturgical and learned language until Hellenistic period - Akkadian: - Settled central and northern Iraq in Early Dynastic period or earlier ▯ - Sargonic kingdom (2350-2150 BC): first flowering of Akkadian language ▯ - After 2,000 BC: Assyrian and Babylonian dialects ▯ - 18 century BC: Akkadian becomes main language of Mesopotamia ▯ - 2nd Millennium BC: Akkadian spreads to entire Near East as language of culture ▯ and diplomacy ("Akkadian cosmopolis") ▯ - 1st Millennium: retreat of Akkadian to Mesopotamia ▯ - 700-400 BC: Akkadian replaces by Aramaic as a spoken language Key words for Lesson 2 Egypt 1. Manetho ▯ - He was probably a priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis (according to ▯ Syncellus, he was the chief priest), and was also considered an authority on the ▯ cult of Sarapis (a derivation of Osiris-Apis) ▯ - Sarapis itself was a Greco-Macedonian annexation of the Egyptian cult, ▯ probably started after Alexander the Great's establishment of Alexandria in Egypt 2. George Syncellus - was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic - had lived many years in Palestine (probably in the Old Lavra of Saint Chariton or Souka, near Tekoa) as a monk, before coming to Constantinople, where he was appointed syncellus (literally, "Cell-mate") to Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople - later retired to monastery to write what was intended to be his great work, a chronicle of world history, Ekloge chronographias, or Extract of Chronography - According to Anastasius Bibliothecarius, George "struggled valiantly against heresy [i.e. Iconoclasm] and received many punishments from the rulers who raged against the rites of the Church", although the accuracy of the claim is suspect 3. Turin King List ▯ - is a hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Ramesses II ▯ - believed to be the most extensive list of Kings compiled by the Egyptians, and is ▯ the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II ▯ - a list of names of rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, and months and days for ▯ individual kings 4. Abydos King List ▯ - a list of the names of seventy-six kings and pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, found on ▯ the walls of the Temple of Senti I at Abydos, Egypt ▯ - consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches on each row ▯ - provides the order of the Old Kingdom, it is also a sole source to date of the ▯ names of many rulers of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties 5. Menes ▯ - Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period ▯ - united Upper and Lower Egypt, and is the founder of the first dynasty 6. Thinis ▯ - was the capital city of the first dynasties of Ancient Egypt ▯ - undiscovered but well attested to by ancient writers, including the classical ▯ historian Manetho ▯ - began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III, when the capital was ▯ relocated to Memphis 7. Abydos ▯ - a city of Upper Egypt ▯ - contains an inscription from the nineteenth dynasty known as the Abydos King ▯ List 8. Narmer ▯ - an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period ▯ - considered to be the unifier of Egypt and founder of the first Dynasty 9. Narmer Palette ▯ - a flat plate of schist of about 64 cm in height ▯ - found in Hierakonpolis ▯ - carved on both sides with images and words ▯ - the carvings illustrate Narmer's battles, the images include symbols of a cattle ▯ cult, and drawings that are typical of latter Egyptian forms of decoration ▯ - represents the unification battle of 5,000 years ago, unification of Upper and ▯ Lower Egypt 10. Unification of Egypt 11. Memphis ▯ - capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt ▯ - founded by the pharaoh Menes ▯ - capital of Egypt during Old Kingdom 12. Dynastic Egypt Dynasties 1-II 13. Old Kingdom ▯ - regarded as spanning the period of when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty ▯ through to the Sixth Dynasty ▯ - the capital was Memphis, where Djoser established his court ▯ - best known for the large number of pyramids, which were constructed at this time ▯ as pharaonic burial places ▯ - frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids" ▯ - the first noble pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was Djoser of the Third Dynasty, who ▯ ordered the construction of a pyramid (the Step Pyramid) in Memphis' necropolis, ▯ Saqqara ▯ - it was in this era that formerly independent ancient Egyptian states become ▯ known as nomes, ruled solely by the pharaoh. Subsequently the former rulers ▯ were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection ▯ - Egyptians in this era worshipped their pharaoh as a god, believing that he ▯ ensured the annual flooding of the Nile that was necessary for their crops ▯ - the Old Kingdom and its royal power reached their zenith under the Fourth ▯ Dynasty ▯ - the fifth Dynasty began with Userkhaf, who initiated reforms that weakened the ▯ central government. After his reign civil wars arose as the powerful nomarchs no ▯ longer belonged to the royal family. The worsening civil conflict undermined unity ▯ and energetic government and also caused famines. The final blow came between ▯ 2200 and
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