All Lecture notes for Final exam

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Classical Studies
P Ferguson

Study Guide All lecture Notes for Final Exam Lecture 7 Egyptian Geography and HistoryThe Name Egypt Egypt called a Gift of the NileHerodotus Histories called it a gift of the river which was mistranslated Nile is the longest river in the world and the lifeblood of Egypt and other countries Egypt called Kemet Black Land which symbolized the fertile Nile Valley and Delta and represents civilization order Egypt Horus Desret Red Land refers to the deserts east and west of the Nile representing chaos storms foreign lands Seth Egypt comes from Greek AigyptosEgyptian hikuptah a name for Memphis from the temple of Ptah HewetkaPtah related to Coptic Basic Egyptian Geography Egypt had a sense of self as opposed to Mesopotamia fragmented city states with own culture traditions languages etc even if it was politically segregated Egypt is north of the first cataract rapids to the south is Nubia modern Sudan which was considered foreign by the Egyptians Lower Egypt to North and Upper Egypt to South due to flow of Nile North to southNile Delta Lower EgyptFayum fertile area for Upper Egypt near upperlower border Nile valley most of Upper EgyptcataractNubiaThe Nile River and the Seasons Has 2 tributariesBlue Nile Lake Tana Ethiopia and White Nile Lake Victoria Uganda both flooded at different times Mud deposits built up over centuries on fertile landmost of Egyptian sites now under the water tablefunerary sites are studied since they were in the desert In antiquity floods would have been very amazing as they would have blocked out some areas completely from others Flooding inundation important to bring fresh water into the land Flooding of Nile begins late July peaks AugSept recedes by OctNovdivides seasons into Akhet flood time Peret growing season Shemu dry season Irrigation was important in Egypt tooFlooding of Nile more predictable and less destructive than that of Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia Shadufsimple waterlifting device for land irrigation above rivercanal levelsEgyptian ChronologyThe 31 Dynasties Divided into 31 DynastiesStarts with the rule of the world by godsDynasty 1 Is the unification of Egypt by Menes DynastyDynasty 31Persian dynasty conquered by Alexander rdSystem comes from 3 century BCE by Egyptian priest and scholar named Manethoconfirmed by parallel systems found in Turin Canon and Palermo stone Manetho was an Egyptian who wrote Aegyptiaca history of Egypt in Greek preserved in quotes developed through temple recordsShow Egyptian comprehension of their history as cyclical pattern of unification and fragmentations The Predynastic Period People have been living in Egypt since the Palaeolithic period as early as humans 7500 BCENile Valley settled in Neolithic period 5000 BCEDesertification and a drop in Nile floodssettlements intensified along Nile riverSimilar to Childes Oasis hypothesis but ca 2000 yrs later Different cultural development in the north Nile Delta and south Nile Valley Predynastic BurialsIn oval pits individual on left side sometimes on a matHead pointing south facing westUnequal distribution of wealth
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