All Midterm Lecture notes

30 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
P Ferguson

Exam Notes: All Lecture Notes for Midterm Ancient Mythology: Lecture one  History is an interpretation of past events (distinct field) o Not just about everything that happened in the past  BC & AD = religious context pertaining to birth/death of Christ o Used to date the past o 2012 (BCE & CE)  before common era and common era o There is no year “0” o BCE = 1000’s of years ago  3 systems used:  King Lists  Events (Astrologers) o Ex: rise of Sirius star/ refs to eclipses etc  Limmu (system named after high officials)  Archeology  study of people in past societies through discovering & studying artifacts  Relative Dating  layers of time you discover when you study artifacts o Deeper you go, older things get o Ex: find various parts of pot and try to track by looking at the style of it from particular decades o Radio Carbon dating  Measure amount of carbon 14 and figure out the date of it o Dendrochronology form of dating using tree rings o Numismatics= another form of dating using coins  History and Archeology are just 2 methods that are used when attempting to study the past Mesopotamia: B/w the Tigris and Euphrates River  Can divide Mesopotamia into 3 eras  Land of Mesopotamia moves from south to north o Subartu, Akkad, Sumer o Subartu= northern Iraq o Akkad= Central Iraq o Sumer= southern Iraq  Origin of agriculture  3 hypothesis o Oasis Hypothesis  Climate change resuted in concentration of people and animals around water holes o Nuclear zone hypothesis  focused on natural conditions o Population Pressure Hypothesis  too many people with limited resources  Wheat and Barley – domesticated to become food o Barley (image on ppt.)  A= Domesticated (grains not released so easily)  Allows to be harvested and reaped  People got more food from domesticated barley  B= wild (grains released easily into grounds with strong winds)  Civilization  organized human society operating within a larger nation o There are 3 elements :  First- Urban environment (cities)  Second- Monumental Architecture (temples)  Third- Writing (communication)  The king was also sometimes the priest in certain civilizations  Redistribution (goods go more to king and friends of the king than to the peasants)  Temples are built over time (gets more renovation, additions, etc.) o But the sacredness of the spot is maintained  Couldn’t sign your name, had to stamp your sign  The Uruk period  intense urbanization (starting to trade among one another)  Old temples built on raised ground  Ziggurat: o Elevated building (not like pyramids which were more like tombs) o Temple/ shrine  Warka vase: Has now been ruined more after it had been stolen  Cuneiform writing: o the circles and half-moon shapes represent numbers o it’s Latin for triangular shape o Accounting used to be done with tokens (counting)  Numbers were set in an envelope which could not be altered/ changed later  They removed the envelope step later and just placed it Early Dynastic Period:  Early dynastic cities  central temple complexes: large palace-like buildings  Death pit: if king or queen dies, you die with them o Go into the afterlife with them (Only the king’s people and the Queen’s people) rd  The Akkadians  from the later part of the 3 Century  Akkad: o Sometimes called the first empire of the world o Small in comparison to things today o Not sure exact location (but we have a rough idea) o Small kingdoms which start ruling from the centre (idea of an empire) o 1 king called “shar-u-king” o Kings helmets had horns (that’s also how the Gods were depicted)  Vikings never had helmets with horns (inaccurate and common misconception)  Babylonian o Hammurabi (most important Babylonian) o The king received his power from God (Shamash  God of the sun) o Image of Hammurabi receiving authority from God to rule o Like a coronation (rod = symbol of authority) o Putting feet on mountains (elevated) because that’s how powerful God is Lecture 2: Sigla & Abbreviations OBV: Old Babylonian Version (early 2 million) nd MAV: Middle Assyrian Version (late 2 mill.) SBV: Standard Babylonian Version (early – mid 1 miil.) LV: Late Version (later 1 mill.) st nd (Catchline): phrase repeated from end of 1 tablet onto 2 (Colophon): length and number of tablet, title of work, condition, source, scribe, reason for writing, location of copy, often also date, reign of king Creation Myths Explain the origins of - Gods (hierarchy, variety, forms of worship), - the natural world (cosmos) – how it came to be?; natural phenomena - humanity – how did we get here? God-man relationship - human condition – why do humans suffer and die? Male and female origins/relationsips o why is childbirth painful? Reason for mortality? - cultural institutions – traditions, cultural hierarchies; Sumerian “me” SEVERAL creation myths in Mesopotamia Ea = Enki = Nudimmud Terms Theogony: an account of the genealogy of a group or system of gods Cosmogony: a theory regarding origin of the universe Cosmology: an account or theory of the nature of the universe Aetiology: investigation or attribution of the cause or reason for something, often in terms of historical or mythical explanations Mythopoeia: the making of a myth or myths Usually theogony  cosmogony  homogony Cosmology: Babylonian “Map of the World” Earth is flat Babylon = centre of the earth If you walk far enough, you will reach the sea In corners: fantastical lands - e.g. in the north: a place in eternal darkness; this may be based on deductive reasoning from astronomical observations Earth is the flat plane, covered by dome (sky) and below it, the netherworld; the whole model surrounded by primordial sea; constellations travel through sky and netherworld Constellations = Gods Not everyone saw the world the same way Ancient people were keen observers of the natural world Myths helped explain natural phenomena like marine fossils in deposits far from the sea (aetiology of fossils) Many monsters might be based on fossil finds of dinosaurs and giant mammals (The First Fossil Hunters by Mayor) Not until 19 century CE with the work of scientists like Wiliam Smith were fossils really understood (The Map that Changed the World by Winchester) Some Creation Myths Each city state had its own creation stories which differs even in essentials from others  there is no one Mesopotamian view of creation Incest taboo is almost universal but tends to occur in creation myths due to limited population Name of Myth Creators of the World Epic of Creation Fresh-water (Apsu) and Sea-water (Tiamat) Theogony of Dunnu Plough and Earth Another text with incantation against Anu who creates the sky which creates toothache Earth Theogony of Hthiod (composed in Sky and Earth Boeotia in 8 century BCE) Theogony of Dunnu Not the most common creation story but shows the existence of various traditions nd Probably dates to at least early 2 millennium when Dunnu was an important town Much of the myth is missing Type: theogonical succession Purpose: to explain how Dunnu and the world were created Themes: incest, patricide, matricide, succession, domestication of nature Monthly schedule of family violence leads up to change of habits at New Year – connected with recitation of Creation and New Year’s Festival? No proper analysis! Summary Plough (king) + Earth made Dunnu  Cattle God + Sea; Earth + Cattle God  Flocks (with Sea) + River  Herdsman God + Pasture-and-Poplar  Harhanum + Belet-Seri (mistress of open country / desert)  Hayyashum + Sister(?) Cattle God killed Plough; Flocks God killed Cattle God; Sea killed Earth; Herdsman killed Flocks; Harhanum killed Herdsman; Hayyashum ordered imprisonment of Harhanum Male vs. Female = females are elemental / fertile / passive / submissive; males are living / controlling / dependent / exploitative Males gaining control over nature  Domestication themes The Epic of Creation: When Skies Above Although it is named “epic,” it is not the same traditional epic (no struggle against fate, mortal heroes, no sense of suspense, only death of villains) as Gilgamesh Purpose: to introduce earliest generations of gods up to Marduk, show overcoming of forces of evil and chaos to establish present order of universe, i.e. religious centres, divisions of time, celestial bodies moving properly, creation of mankind to serve gods Gods behave in orderly fashion (assemble, discuss, agree, elect leaders) No goddess (except Tiamat) involved in creation of civilization Dates of Composition Canonical (little textual variation between versions) Tablets with written work to 1 millennium, epic continued into Seleucid period (first used by Berossus in Babyloniaca), known in 5 and 6 century AD (Damascius quoted from Berossus) Tradition must be earlier: date for hymnic-epic dialect cannot be found Version featuring Marduk is primary and Assur is secondary  no traces of Assyrian dialect Tablets 1-V: appear to be original; war between Marduk and Tiamat; supremacy of Marduk; foundation of Babylon Tablets V-V1: creation of human kind; 50 names of Marduk; probably Kassite origin If version with Marduk is original then epic composed during reign of either… - At earliest during reign of Amorite ruler Sumula-el (1936 – 1901 BCE) o “under whom Babylon first achieved eminence” o Marduk as patron godthf Babylon - Kassite ruler Agum Kakrime (16 century BCE) o Bought back cult statue of Marduk from years in captivity and reinstated in Babylon  occasion  compositions and artwork o Perhaps when monsters of Tiamat’s army were inscribed on temple doors? However, monsters aren’t exactly the same and there are questions about its authenticity. - Nebuchadnezzar I (1125 – 1104 BCE) o Also bought back cult statue of Marduk from years in captivity o Probably not the date for composition sice the An-Anum list of gods of Babylonian pantheon with their secondary names, incl Anum’s, found in Hittite capital Anatolia from before time of Nebuchadnezzar Myth may have Amorite (West Semitic) origins because of storm god Addu (included in Marduk’s name) and the triumph over the sea - This theme also found in a myth from Ugarit and alluded to in the Old Testament - Sumerian temple hymns, poems refer to heroic exploits of gods but never to this theme because the Sea is not as important in Sumerian pantheon - Possible that basic story is Amorite (with an original Amorite god) and last two tablets were added during Kassite period Ritual Connection Ritual tablet with instructions for New Year Festival in Babylon in the month of Nisan (April) says specifically to recite (or enact) this epic on fourth day Ritualistic stories also identified with opening sentence “When…” At New Year Festival, kings swore fealty to Marduk and citizens swore fealty to king  explains its style, i.e. myth vaguely phrased (as compared to, for example Gilgamesh)  designed to impress rather than entertain - Impresses upon subjects how an orderly universe and its kingship should be organized - Ideal state of affaris used for propoganda purpose, i.e. when the king’s subject kiss his feet, they are doing no less than great gods did for Marduk - No question of rivalry; loyalty is absolute Naming something gives it great importance Most of the names of Marduk are Sumerian, making them magical Sumerian language was already old (antiquarian), authoritative, and only spoken by certain people (secret knowledge) Ancient Mesopotamians believed that studying words / names increases understanding but also gives essence of the thing they are naming Origin began with two primordial elements – not worshipped Summary Apsu (fresh water; underground) + Tiamat (salt water; female; chaos)  Lahmu and Lahamu (hairy primeval heroes? Are they silt where the rivers enter the sea, i.e. mud?)  Anshar (sky) and Kishar (earth) Anu (son of Ashar and Kishar) (sky god)  Nudimmud (Ea/Enki) (creator God of fresh water) + Damkina  Marduk Younger gods make noise, disturbing Tiamat and Apsu Apsu wants to kill them (his children) and goes with Mummu (Vizier) to tell Tiamat Tiamat refuses to help them so they decide to act on their own; gods in Tiamat’s belly hear the plan Ea puts Apsu to sleep, takes crown and symbols of office, slays Apsu, sets dwelling in Apsu where he lives with his lover Damkina and gives birth to Marduk Marduk plays with the 4 winds given to him by Anu  stirs up Tiamat  disturbs gods in Tiamat The gods in Tiamat incite her to avenge Apsu’s and Mummu’s deaths and she decides to go to war - Mother Hubur (river in the underworld) makes serpents, mashussu dragon, horned serpent, lamhu- hero, ugallu demon, rabid dog, scorpion-man, umu-demons, fish man, bull man; made 7 more = 22 - Tiamat names Qingu her lover and general of her army Ea informs Anshar, who tells him to quell Tiamat but Ea is unsuccessful Anshar sends 3 people to destroy Tiamat - Anu: defeated - Nudimmud: panicked and returned - Marduk: volunteers himself Marduk gets power and slays Tiamat, disperses and cages her army Marduk defiles Timat’s body, cuts her to make the sky and sea of the world Also forms rivers (head), mountains (from udder), constellations, shrines (homes) for the gods Gives tablet of destiny to Anu, establishes Babylon as centre (Ziggurat, E-sagilia ~ Temple of Marduk) Man made from Qingu’s (leader’s) blood to do work for the gods by Ea List of 50/55 names of Marduk Atrahasis: When the God’s instead of man Atrahasis the wise man who built an ark and saved mankind from destruction - Figure of immense prestige and antiquity - Various literary and religious traditions were attached to him - In Mesopotamia, he was survivor of the Flood and with his wife was granted immortality by the gods - May have been son of Ubara-tutu (named in Gilgamesh), King of Shurrupak (modern Tel Fafah) according to one version of the Sumerian King List - May have been son of Shurrupak, King of Shurrupak who precedes Ziusudra (Atrahasis) on another version of the Sumerian King List - Shurrupak considered the eponymous ancestor of the citizens (but is preceded by Ubara-tutu on the same 2 list) - The Instructions of Shuruppak dated to Early Dynastic period contains sage advice given by Shuruppak to Ziusudra Names of Atrahasis - Akkadian Atrahasis: “extra-wise” - Utnapishtim, Uta-na’ishtim: “he found life” from Gilgamesh - Sumerian Ziusudra: “he found life,” “the far distant” - Xisuthros – Berossus’ phoenetic rendering of Ziusudra - Greek Prometheus – may be Greek translation of Atrahasis - Biblical Noah – may come from abbreviation of Ut-na’ishtim, as used by Palestinians from an early time - Atrahasis also found as an ephitet for a man in Hittite story about Kumarbi - Hittite Ulluyas – translation of Attrahasis epithet for “far distant” - Greek Odysseus / Outis – may be based on pronunciation for Ut-napishtim’s logagram UD.ZI - Roman Ulysses – from Hittite Ulluyas - Ugarithic Kothar-wa-hasis: skilled craftsman god; abbreviated to Chousor in Greek account of Syrian origins related by Philo of Byblos - Islamic sage Al-Khidr: guarded the Fountain of Life and gave water from it to King Sakhr – episode related in Arabian Nights to Buluqiya (Gilgamesh of Islamic narrative) - What is the real name and what is an epithet? Dates Old Babylonian clay tablets, 1700 BCE, where each tablet is divided into 8 columns (4 on obverse, 4 on reverse) Some passages of Late Assyrian version discovered in palace library of great king Assubanipal that appear to follow OBV closely but with additions and alterations of phrasing and vocabulary Ipiq-Aya, the author - Rarely is an author named for such an early text - Wrote during reign of Ammi-saduqa, King of Babylon (1702 – 1682 BCE) on 8-column tablets, each of 50 lines - Probably lived in Sippar, where temple of sun-god Shahmash was famous with its cloister of celibate priestesses whose aetiology is given in Atrahasis - Apparently compiler and arranger of traditional material: How much personal contribution? Creation of Mankind - In Atrahasis, mother goddess Mami with help of wise god Ea created men with clay + blood of Illawela (god with intelligence) - In Epic of Creation, Marduk slays and uses Qingu’s blood - Both Mesopotamian accounts write that the purpose of men is to toil for the gods - In Genesis, God uses earth and breathes life to create first man - In Hesoid’s Work and Days (Greek, from late 8 century BCE Boeotia), gods incite smith-god Hephaistos to make Pandora out of clay and water - Greek and Mesopotamian deities of birth / fertility also associated with mining, smelting and coppersmithing craft  making new forms from basic materials The Flood - extensive flood occasionally took place in Southern Mesopotamia where Euphrates overflows and meets with lower lying Tigris - Layer of flood silt at Ur excavations much older than that at Shuruppak - No flood during 2 or 3 millennia so Archbishop’s date of 2349 is wrong - In Atrahasis, flood is caused because people are too noisy (overpopulation) - In Greek poem Cypria, Zeus plans to reduce overpopulation through war - In Genesis + Metamorphoses, flood is caused due to wickedness of humans - In Mesopotamian tradition, the Flood… o Ends the period where true sages lived on Earth and brought arts and civilization from gods to mankind o Marks the time were humans may no longer achieve immortality - Berossus and Priestly account of Genesis probably share common chronological scheme derived from Sumerian version - “Myriad of deviations” of the Flood tale may have originated from one story and were adapted to local tastes and customs - May have also been different stories all with the aim of explaining aetiology of marine fossils - Even the “local” tales may have first be disseminated by emigrants of Mespotamia to different cultures Purpose - At first, people had no allotted life-span so the gods had to send, intermittently, plague, famine or flood - Thus, Gods institute death along with infertility and infant / child mortality - Atrahasis also explains aetiology of celibate priestesshood Some terms Annunaki (older generation of gods) and Igigi (younger generation of gods) Ekur = Nuppur Events that occur: Disease, Drought and Famine (x2), Disease, Drought and Famine (6 yrs) Reed hut: probably a mudhif like those by marsh Arabs Summary Annunnaki have Igigi dig canals for them The Igigi get tired of working  strike in front of Ellil’s house Ekur (cause a racket) Ellil asks his fater Anu and an assembly of Annunaki for advice Nusku, god of light and Ellil’s vizier, acts as intermediary between Ellil and the Igigi Ellil calls on assembly; decision: Mami will make men to do the work “On the first, seventh, and fifteenth of the month, He (Enki) made a purification by washing. Illawela, who had intelligence, They slaughtered in their assembly. Nintu mixed clay With his (Illawela’s) flesh and blood They heard the drumbeat forever after. A ghost came into existence from the god’s flesh And she (Nintu) proclaimed him as his living sign. The ghost existed so as to not forget the slain god. After she had mixed that clay, She called up the Anunnaki, the great gods. The Igigi, the great gods, Spat spittle upon the clay. Mami made her voice heard And spoke to the great gods … He (Enki) trod the clay in her presence; She (Mami) kept reciting an incantation … She pinched off fourteen pieces (of clay), And set seven pieces on the right, Seven on the left. Between them she put down a mud brink. She made use of (?) a reed, opened it (?) to cut the umbilical cord, Called upon the wise and knowledgeable, Womb-goddesses, seven and seven. Seven created males, Seven created females … When the tenth month came, She (Nintu) slipped in (?) a staff and opened the womb. Her face was glad and joyful. She covered her head, Performed the midwifery” (p.15-17) Childbirth is described Humans are part divine (pulse / drumbeat, inhabited by the ghost of a god) Men and women are explained as made for one another After 1200 yrs, overpopulation  Ellil calls the assembly  Suruppu disease Atrahasis talks to Enki; people revolt against the gods and were devoted to Namtara increases and he stops disease After 600 yrs, overpopulation  Ellil calls the assembly  “Cut off food supplies, Let the vegetation be too scant … Adad wipe away his rain, no flood-waer flow … let wind go, let it strip the ground bare, Let clouds gather not drop rain … diminished harvest, Let Nissaba stop her bosom … no happiness” (p.20) Atrahasis talks to ___; people’s devotion to Adad increases and he made “mist” and “drew drop,” ending drought After 600 yrs, overpopulation  Ellil calls the assembly  “Anu and Adad kept the air above locked, Sin and Nergal kept the middle earth locked. As for the bolt that bars the sea, Ea with his lahmu-creatures kept it locked.” (p.22) Atrahasis offers massakku to Ea through the irrigation waters  Ea sends message to Atrahasis about why land is ruined  ?  solution Overpopulation  Ellil orders all three things - 1 yr: drought - storehouses - famine - weakened - suspicious, sell relative into slavery - cannibalism; only one or two households left Atrahasis talks to Ea (? What happens?)  solution (?)  again, all of the above Some plan goes wrong  Enki and Ellil fight Ellil is unhappy that mankind is not yet destroyed and he knows it is Enki’s fault Ellil orders Enki to make a flood; Enki doesn’t want to as he made the humans Assembly orders and “Ellil performed a bad deed to the people” Enki appears to Atrahasis’ reed hut and tells him to escape the flood (p.30) Atrahasis tells the elders of Shurppak that his personal god (Enki) is out of favour with the city god (Ellil) People help Atrahasis to make the boat Adad starts rain with eagle Anzu who makes storm range Atrahasis seals boat and he escapes with some living things (p.31) During the seven days and seven nights, earth is destroyed Even the gods suffer – no food since there is no sacrifice The Gods call Anu and Ellil “cruel” for announcing this decision Flood ends, humans give sacrifice to the Gods who gather “like flies” Nintu commemorates event with a fly-shaped necklace Anu and Ellil are furious with Enki for allowing anyone’s escape but Enki is not regretful (“I did it in defiance of you”) Nintu is called to make the decisions since she is goddess of destinies She makes three things for population control: death / old age, infertility, child / infant mortality; also institutes ugbabtu, entu, egisitu-women (celibate priestesses) Biblical Connections of Flood Much of the original 19 century archaeology and cuneiform decipherment was done to “prove” or illustrate events or people of the Bible - not the best thing to do! Translation of Epic of Gilgamesh complicated matters since it appeared older than the written Biblical account of Noah When did the Flood happen? Disputable because no Great Flood could be found In antedivullian time (pre-Flood), heroes (Nephilim, perhaps semi-divine) still walked the earth God limits life to 120 years Humans were wicked except for Noah, who was given instructions to build an ark with pairs of animals 150 days later: waters recede and ark comes to rest on the mountains of Ararat 40 days after: raven sent out Dove sent out and comes back Noah, his family and the animals emerge from the ark and give sacrifice Deucalion, Greco-Roman Food Story Oldest Greek compilations (Hesoid, Homer) do not have it Preserved in Ovid’s Metamorphoses (late 1 century BCE) Jupiter goes to see if men are actually wicked Lycaon wants to see if his guest is Jupiter so he serves human meat Jupiter is enraged, burns Lycaon’s house and decides to have the flood - Lycaon turns into werewolf Decualion and Pyrrha’s boat goes to rest on Mt. Parnassus Deculaion and Pyrrha party to Themis, goddess of oracles and a consort of Jupiter Themis tells them to her temple, throwing the “bones of the great mother” behind their backs They interpret these as rocks, which grow into people Lecture 3: What is Myth? From the Greek word mythos Defined as a “traditional story” with a plotline, characters, set in the distant parts Often part of an oral tradition, anonymous In a culture, different versions of the same myth can coexist despite any contradictions without one being “truth” Divine myths - many characters are deities / supernatural - include creation myths and other aetiologies of the natural world - Gods may be natural elements and/or real personalities with human weaknesses - Myth is separate from religious belief and ritual Legends - Deal with heroes, human or semi-divine (one parent is a god) - Members of the royalty or nobility - Ancient people believed in such legends as we regard history, helping to explain the past - Usually have a kernel of truth to legends (heroes might have been real kings, setting is realistic) - Includes aetiological explanations of social traditions – how did social traditions come to be? Folktales - Characters are ordinary people or animals (fables) - Focus on entertainment but also justify social / cultural traditions - Combine motifs that appear again and again (like a treasure guarded by a monster) - Over 700 types of folktales have been catalogued, e.g. the quest - Much use of folktale motifs in legends Mythos is different from lobos (account, analysis), historia (history) The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld Older version: Sumerian The Descent of Ina
More Less

Related notes for CLAA05H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.