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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
P Ferguson

CLAA05 LECTURES Lecture 1: Introduction - Sept 12 Mesopotamia and Egypt  No modern state of Mesopotamia (land between rivers) Lecture 2: History  Interpretation of past events Dating the Past\  BC (Before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini)  BCE (Before the Common Era) and CE (Common Era) – used today  N.B. There is no “Year Zero”  Before Present o For C-14 dating, defined as before 1950 CE  3 systems variously in use in Mesopotamia o King Lists (12 year Nabonidus) o Events (Year when Uruk and Insin Archaeology  The study of people in the past societies through the retrieval and analysis of artifacts Stratigraphy – the law of superposition  Deeper you go older shit gets Relative Dating  Find pottery pieces at one site, and try to fit it in to changing styles from another site to try and determine dates Absolute Dates  Radiocarbon – carbon breaks down over time, measure amount of Carbon 14 left to get date  Numismatics – Mesopotamia  3 Regions o Subartu (Northern Iraq) o Akkad (southern Iraq) o Sumer (central Iraq) Origins of Agriculture  Oasis Hypothesis  Nuclear Zone Hypothesis  Population Pressure Hypothesis Natural Vegetation Zones of Iraq Wheat and Barley  Wild barely has a weak rachis so that when it is touched, broken, blown seeds will release and more will grow  Domesticated barely has a strong rachis in order of farmers to cut and eat Distribution of Wild Livestock Species  Same location of grains (fertile crescent)  Pigs  Aurochs (wild cattle)  Goat  Sheep Civilization 3 Elements 1. Cities  Urban environment  10,000 + population  craft specialization  social inequality 2. Monumental Architecture  Fortifications – to defend them selves (city wall)  Temples 3. Writing  Accounting  Communication  ? Ubaid Society (5000-3800 BCE)  economic and social hierarchies – some people becoming more powerful and richer  Religion served as form of ideology that legitimized social differentiation  Heads of religios institutions had command of labou and products  Priest kings…?? Eridu  God: Enki o Was a water god, brought the earth forth from the chaos of water  Temple Sequence – started small (level XVI) and gradually grew larger into a palace Ubaid Seals = Private Property  Like a stamp, signed name by pushing it into something The Uruk Expansionu  Ca. 3600 BCE  Entense urbanization –getting bigger strating to trade amongst eachother Anu Precinct, White Temple  Irregular temple – platform is a prototypical ziggurat  Temple on a raised mound Ziggarurats – a faced, and often painted stepped pyramid of brick elevating functional building. Such was the so-called „tower‟ of Babylon  Not the same as the pyramids in Egypt Uruk: Warka Vase – see slide  Alabaster – translucent milky white stone Cuneiform Writing  Akkadian Logograms The Early Dynastic Period and the Formation of the First City-States Early Dynastic Period Ur  In southern Mesopotamia – Sumer  Royal Cemetery o 2500 graves uncovered (death pits) o if you were a attendant or solider of a king/queen and they die you go with them to serve them in the afterlife...put you in pit and poison or get hit in the head The Akkadians and the Ur III Dynasty Sargon of Akkad Babylon Lecture 3: Catchilines and Colophons Colophon  length of tablet  # of tablet  title of work  condition  source  scribe  reason for writing  location of copy  who what where when why Creation Myths - help explain origins of…  gods  cosmos (the natural world)  humanity  human condition  cultural institutions Definitions  “gony” – the creation of  Theogony – genealogoy
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