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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
P Ferguson

Timeline 5000 Ubaid Society (5000 – 3800 BCE) Predynastic Period 4500 - Showed all the aspects of civilization 4000 (hierarchies, religion, heads, common food) - Eridu (temple for Enki) - Ubaid seals 3500 Uruk Expansion (3600 BCE) - Intense urbanization - Development of extensive trading networks - Uruk = modern Warka, Biblical Erech: originally city with 2 settlements - Eanna, Temple of Inanna (Ishtar) - Kullaba, Anu Precinct (White temple and Ziggurat) - Alabaster Warqa Vase (3000 BCE) with sheep and plants (bottom), men carrying goods (middle), ruler of Uruk presents goods to goddess Inanna identified by double reed bundles - Development of cuneiform script from tokens to tablets with Akkadian logograms 3000 Early Dynastic I - Development of secular authority (Lu.Gal) Early Dynastic Period (2900 – 2700) - Development and greater importance on The Scorpion Kings Early Dynastic II palace building Old Kingdom (2700 – 2500) - Large cities and warfare Early Dynastic III - Early Dynastic cities (2500 – 2350) - Central temple complexes - Large-scale palace buildings - Massive defensive walls (e.g. Uruk’s wall made of plano-convex bricks 9 km in length attributed to Gilgamesh) - High-density domestic architecture - Royal Cemetery (Mausolea), Ur - 2500 graves, some from Ur III period - Most famous grave is of Meskalamdug; had gold head covering with hair and ear details; was King of Uruk as shown on cylinder seals - Tomb of Shudi-ad (Puabi) with jewellery - Dynastic "Standard” shows lyre similar to one from cemetery - Palace G (SAZA), Ebla (Tel-Mardikh) - Had archive room of 10 000 tablets arranged on shelves 2500 Dynasty of Sargon 1 (2334 – 2279 BCE) Agade (Akkadian - First King called Sharu-ukin (means true Empire) king) (2334 – c.2160) - Daughter Enhuaddana held most prestigious temple office and authoress of Sumerian temple tradition hymns Naram-Sin (2254 – 2218 BCE) - Victory Steele commemorates his victory The First Intermediate Period over Lullubi tribe - New approach to art: depicts historical event, divine horned helmet, landscapes, Gutian Raids naturalism in human forms 3 Dynasty of Ur - Akkadians created idea of “empire” but (2119 – 2004) didn’t have the strong administrative Isin-Larsa system Gutians sacked Akkadian The Middle Kingdom Ur III kings called Ki-Engi and Ki-Uri - Temple complexes at Ur, including Ziggurat 2000 Old Babylonian Sumula-el (1936 – 1901 BCE) (1894 – 1595) - Amorite ruler under whom Babylon first achieved eminence - Marduk as patron god  this time is when Epic of Creation was probably composed Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 BCE) - Reigned for 43 yrs - Started as ally of Shamshi-Adad of Assyria - Established rule like Assyria but with greater control - Undertook many wars Second Intermediate Period - Steele of Hammurabi shows Royal Investiture scene (getting rod and rope of office) with sun god Shahmash, divine horns, awkward combination of frontal and profile, palace façade on throne with stylized mountain - Established Law Code with 282 Laws that covered everything from business to assault to family laws Ammi-Saduqa (1702 – 1682) - Clay tablets of Atrahasis written under him by Ipiq-Aya Ineffectual successors Hittite King Murshili I sacks Babylon, 1595 BCE  political chaos Kassite Kassites from northeast rule for 576 yrs 9 (1600 – 1154) months - Were less organized but learned Mesopotamian culture quickly - Central, stable, strong rule where tax revenues used for state  prosperity - Z
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