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Classical Studies
Douglas Petrovich

1) Tripartite temple(s) at Eridu • TRIPARTITE TEMPLES : The main hall or central room of a palace or house, especially of Myc. Greece, having a pillared porch and a more or less central hearth (used for poetry, feats, worship, sacrifice, royal functions) • 18 successive temples in the early Eridu period • NE with free standing podium, with ashes and fish bones • SW an alter, with 2 recessed niches on side of wall o Niches reserved for cultic idols of living gods 2) Megaron at Mycenae • MEGARON TEMPLES :The main hall or central room of a palace or house, especially of Mycenaean Greece, having a pillared porch and a more or less central hearth • Located on Greek Peloponnese (large island), atop a small hill • Mycenaean culture technically didn’t have temples, so megaron served purpose of hosting religious activities as one of its many functions. 3) hearth • A brick/stone-lined floor for a fireplace • Found only in Megarons, not Tripartites (a Greek feature) • Used for worship, sacrifice, and worship 4) Celtic human sacrifice • The Celtic “barbarians” were connected with priestly class known as Druids, who always officiated over sacrificial rites • Dispatched victims and observed the dying struggle for divining purposes o Would also cut throats of victims, collected remains, and examined blood that was caught in the cauldrons. • Infant sacrifice found, including cases of corpses weighed down with stones (to prevents spirits from rising) and heads in storage pits (to bless corn) o Also heads found on poles of fort gates 5) Ur-Zababa • Ur-Zababa, king of Kish, died in a pool of blood o Supposedly had previously woken up from dream and appointed Sargon as his cup bearer • Ur-Zababa’s reaction: repeatedly tried to kill Sargon for implying that the goddess of war was against Ur-Zababa to such a great extent that she would kill him in order to remove him from the throne. o Sargon used religious ideology to illegitimate the kings rule • Sargon’s credited goddess of war with protecting his life from Ur-Zababa’s wrath 6) Dagon • Mesopotamian deity • Sargon the great connected his military success to him and established his dependence on him for battles • Credited with bequeathing him with his northern territories. 7) Antiochus Epiphanes • “God Manifest”: a Greek king of the Seleucid Empire • Parallel to Naram Sin’s self-deification, and the first to use divine epithets (on coins) • Grown powerful, even Rome didn’t invade his empire (documented in books, stating “Then the king [Antiochus IV] will do as he pleases, and he will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will speak monstrous things against the God of gods.” o Titled self: “King Antiochus: God Manifest: God Manifest. Victory Tribute” o Declared himself “god manifest” on coins, declaring himself a deity  showing the ultimate show of arrogance as did Naram Sin, which was claiming divine status 8) Ark of the Covenant • In the first Israel temple in Jerusalem (referred as solomonic temple; Solomon made it) • Within the “inner sanctuary” or “the holy of holies” • One of the most important item in the “holy of holies” o Said to be where Yahweh had dwelled, even for centuries before temple was built o At time of temples dedication, Yahweh’s inhabitation of the temple was described as Yahweh’s glory having filled the house o Two stone tablets of the 10 commandments placed in the ark  Also had manna to feed Israelites after exile from Egypt & staff of Aaron 9) Western Karnak Stele • A pink granite royal stele of Amenhotep II • Decreed to destroy idols of Amun-Re “by his majesty, the officials of the royal court” • Date lost, though it begs question as to what caused dramatic religious crisis that led to such an extreme action as the one required by this edict o Whether connected to Egypt’s military upheaval and foreign policy reversal/abandonment of its vital base in Avaris. 10) Ur-Nammu • Founded the Sumerian 3 dynast of Ur (s. Meso.), king of Sumer and Akkad (inherited empire of Akkadians) • Remembered for his legal code: the code of Ur-Nammu (oldest known surviving example in the world) o Conditional statements (if a man…) o Ruled by principles of equity & truth, with the implication being that these admirable qualities were guiding beacons for the rulers of Ur III 11) Hammurabi • First king of Babylon empire, extending Babylon’s control over Mesopotamia by winning wars against neighbors • Known for set of laws called Hammurabi’s Code o One of 1 written codes of law in recorded history, inscribed on stele o Established the “eye for an eye” principle 12) lex talionis • Principle developed in Babylonian law, in Hammurabi’s Code • “eye for an eye” principle: principle of exact reciprocity. 13) Pietas • Roman term: Denotes attention to maintaining a proper relationship with one’s parents, relatives, ancestors, gods, friends, institutions, & citizens • Morality and ethical behavior were a function of pietas (family and civic duty), and not a function of religion • Involved giving each person, each god, &each institution his or her due o Therefore translated as “sense of duty” or “simply duty” 14) omen
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