Midterm Contents.docx

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Economics for Management Studies
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Chapter 1: Critical Media Studies How Do We Know Somatically – we know through direct sensory perception of our environment “5 senses” Symbolically – these are the things we know through someone or something such as parents, friends, Medium – derived from the Latin word “medius”, which means ‘middle’ WhoAre the Mass Media? - communication technologies that have potential to reach large audiences in all locations Print media - Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type printing press - Revolutionized era where newspaper became popular, books can be stored in libraries. Magazine era came later. Motion Picture and Sound Recording - Thomas Edison ­ phonograph: a device that played recorded sound (1877) ­ kinetoscope: early motion picture device that showed short/silent films (1892) th ­ sale of recorded music  sold and profitedALOT (20 century) Broadcast media ­ media can officially be brought to audiences over public airwaves ­ *radio ­ *television New media ­ began with the development of the microchip for computers Living in Postmodernity - describes the historical era that began to emerge in the 60’s as the economic mode of production in most Western societies slowly shifted from goods based manufacturing to information based services Convergence - tendency of formerly diverse media to share a common, integrated platform. Mobility - instead of going to media, media can come to or go with us virtually anywhere Fragmentation - all types of methods of reaching the info you seek ­ good example is the INTERNET as a fragmented medium Globalization - a complex set of social, political and economic processes in which the physical boundaries and structural policies that previously reinforced the autonomy of the nation state are collapsing in favour of instantaneous and flexible worldwide social relations Simulation - generation by models of a real without origin or reality Why Study Media? Socialization ­ describes the process by which persons learn, adopt, internalize cultural beliefs, values, and norms of society What we know o content influences what we learn  refers to informational component of a message  what we learn from the news How we know o the form influences how we learn  describes the cognitive component of the message  way the message is packaged and delivered Doing Critical Studies Attitude: skeptical ­ assumption that there is more at stake in mass media than initially meets the eye ­ critical person? production of news is complex with needs to fill a 1-hour time slot o approach the news with skepticism Approach: humanistic ­ aim to understand historical and social phenomena Assessment: political ­ determines whose interests are being served in the media Ambition: social justice ­ have a responsibility not only to identify injustice but also to confront and challenge it Theory - explanatory and interpretive tool that simultaneously enables and limits our understanding of the particular social product, practice, or process under investigation Chapter 2: MarxistAnalysis Marxism - Historical materialism Base – material conditions of society (economics) Superstructure – culture, religion, education, politics, judicial system (social) • King (taxes the serfs) -> Lords (Appointed for protection and to handle territory) -> Knights (Appointed to protect both the lord and king) -> Serfs (Appointed to work the land) Patterns of media ownership Concentration – where business concentrates more and more control. Organisation like the mass media is dominated just by a few companies with a lot power Conglomeration – the corporate practice of accumulating multiple companies and business thru start-ups, merges, buyouts and takeovers Integration – an ownership pattern in which the subsidiary companies within a corporation are strategically interrelated Vertical – corporation that owns/ controls various aspects of production within a single media industry o Allows the “parent” corporation to oversee all stages of its development Horizontal – describes an ownership pattern where corporation dominates on stage in the production process Multinationalism – corporate presence in multiple countries, allows for production/ distribution of media products on a global scale Strategies of Profit Maximization Cross-development – involvement of multiple subsidiary companies in the development, production, distribution of media brand Advertising – the practice of pitching products or services to consumers Spectacle Logic of safety Joint ventures Niche marketing Consequences of Ownership Patterns Reduces diversity - Concentration restricts competition - Integration leads to the development of some projects and not others - Logic of safety -- don’t try something if it will fail – limits creativity, homogenizes media Restricts democracy - Made virtually impossible for ordinary citizens to share their ideas and opinions - Gatekeeping - Agenda setting - Framing Fuels cultural imperialism – exporting of US values and ideologies around the globe, usually to the detriment of local culture and national sovereignty Chapter 3: OrganizationalAnalysis Organizations – a system (network) or ordered relationships and coordinated activities directed toward specific goals Structure = form or the underlying framework of an organization Hierarchy – relationship of roles Differentiation – division of an organization into units Formalization – formal standards Process = an organization’s substance; what it does Communicative practices – set of norms and customs, artifacts and events, and values and assumptions that emerge as a consequence of organizational members’communicative practices. Performance – productive and purposeful displays that include: - Rituals – things engaged in or a regular basis - Sociality – codes of etiquette - Politics – specific and different types of politics within any organization - Enculturation – bring newcomers into the organization Narratives – Stories we tell ourselves Textual – Written documents and texts Management – how an organization is directed or managed Technology – the environment in which one does one’s work within the organization Conventions – the norms that govern the technical and creative choices that members of an organization makes. Motivated – develop out of a pragmatic need Shared – shared by others Naturalized – “the norm” “just the way it is” Resilient – “that’s the way we’ve always done it” Directive – they direct specific action – “do it this way” Professionalization – the process by which an individual with free will choice is transformed into an ideological subject whose behaviours and actions reaffirm one’s status as a professional. The News Media:ACase Study News & newsworthiness News - ought to provide the public with accurate and reliable information that assist them in better exercising their civics duties in a democratic society. Journalistic conventions News gathering o The “what” of news Newsworthiness = the “hole” of news that needs to be filled every day o The “where” of news Journalistic beats – where new is expected to occur News agencies – corporate organizations that have multiple sources Punditry and press releases – prepackaged; image management News reporting Personalization – focus on the individual and not on larger social structures. For example, instead of focusing on power and process, the media concentrate on the people engaged in political combat over the issues. Dramatization – Emphasizes crisis over continuity, the present over the past or future, conflicts and relationship problems between personalities; stories and narrative emphasized over analytical essays or scientific-style problem-evidence reporting. What can be visualized takes precedence. Fragmentation – The isolation of stories from each other and from their larger contexts so that information becomes fragmented and hard to assemble into a big picture. Authority-disorder
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