EESA06H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Canadian Shield, James Ussher, Deccan Traps

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
EESA06 Intro to planet Earth short answer possible questions:
Your exam has three short answer questions (5 marks each) and one long
answer question (10 marks)
Homework - you CAN choose to answer a short answer question about
ONE of your homework options. It is avoidable.
Sample Questions:
Lecture 7: Geologic Time, fossils and evolution
-Compare and contrast the 2 main theories of dinosaur extinction
1. A well- known hypothesis for the K-T extinction involves a huge comet or asteroid
striking Earth, sending massive amounts of dust and gas into the atmosphere and
blocking sunlight. Earth’s surface would have been cold for decades. Many
geologists conclude that the impact site, 65 million years ago, was the Chicxulub
crater on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.
2. Another possible cause of the extinction was massive outpourings of basalt in the
Deccan traps in India. Huge eruptions could have put enough sulfur dioxide gas
into the atmosphere to cause a winter that lasted decades.
- Anoxia due to global warming
- Especially severe for large animals
- Small number if species survived
- Adaptive radiation during the recovery phase
- After extinction more species evolved
-Discuss the contributions or 3 players to the level of the western theory of
geographic time
1. Heavily based in Christian religion :
- Earth was created in 7 days
- Climate is fixed
- Till, sand and gravel= Dilivium( biblical floods)
- Strict biblical interpretation of earth’s history: rocks and landscapes result from
Noah’s flood , more than one flood recognized , new life created each time so each
layer contains different life forms.
- Archbishop Ussher of Ireland gave an age of the Earth of about 5600 years, based
on the study of the Old Testament.
2. Catastrophism:
- Georges Cuvier
- Idea that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short- lived, violent
events, possibly worldwide.
- Paradigm shift?
3. *James Hutton 1726-97*
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- Recognized ‘unconformities’ within layers of rocks and the igneous origin of
granite.
- Unconformity: gap in the geologic record, rocks were missing due to erosion
- Proposed concept of ‘ uniformitarianism’ : The present is the key to the past
- Small constant changes
- Earth must be older than 5,600 years (against the church)
- Came into conflict with Abram Werner and ‘diluvanism’ and ‘catastrophism’
- 1788 “ no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end”. Constant cycle of
deposition, burial, uplift, erosion and re-deposition. Same processes we observe
today operated in the past.
- ‘ Catastophism and creationism’ and ‘ uniformitarianism and evolution’
-Compare and contrast, relative and absolute age dating
1. Relative age dating:
The first strategy is to determine the age of one rock relative to another, using a
series of commonsense approaches collectively.
5 principles of relative dating-
1. Most sediments are deposited in horizontal layers
2. A younger sedimentary or volcanic unit is deposited on top of older units
3. A younger sediment or rock can contain pieces of an older rock
4. A younger rock or feature can cut across any older rock or feature
5. Younger rocks and features can cause changes along their contacts with older
rocks
2. Absolute age dating:
This is done by using numerical dating methods, most of which involve chemically
analyzing a rock for the products of natural radioactive decay. Determining the
ages of rocks using analytical measurements is called numeric dating.
-What isotopic systems do we use to determine the ages of rocks and events?
A number of elements have radioactively unstable isotopes, and geologists use
these different isotopic systems to measure different types of ages on rocks,
minerals, sediment, and other materials. Which isotopic system is used depends on
what datable materials are present, the likely age of the materials, and the
geologic history of the unit, Sedimentary rocks are the most difficult to date
because most are composed of pieces of older rocks.
Contrast: both methods use rocks to figure out the age of the earth, or historical
events that happened in an area.
Lecture 8: Economic Geology: Rocky resources and mining in Canada
-Please create a chart comparing and contrasting the various types of ore deposits
Magmatic arc For-arc basin Oceanic crust Oceanic Ridge
Gold Lead Mg, Nickel Copper
Veins, Porphyry
Copper,
Pegmatites
Stratabound,
evaporites
Magmatic,
Evaporites
Massive sulfides
Hydrothermal ore deposits: veins formed when volcanically heated water force
their way up into a fracture.
- Minerals precipitate out from hot water solutions.
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Document Summary

Eesa06 intro to planet earth short answer possible questions: Your exam has three short answer questions (5 marks each) and one long answer question (10 marks) Homework - you can choose to answer a short answer question about. Earth"s surface would have been cold for decades. Many geologists conclude that the impact site, 65 million years ago, was the chicxulub crater on the yucatan peninsula in mexico: another possible cause of the extinction was massive outpourings of basalt in the. Huge eruptions could have put enough sulfur dioxide gas into the atmosphere to cause a winter that lasted decades. Discuss the contributions or 3 players to the level of the western theory of geographic time: heavily based in christian religion : Till, sand and gravel= dilivium( biblical floods) Strict biblical interpretation of earth"s history: rocks and landscapes result from. Noah"s flood , more than one flood recognized , new life created each time so each layer contains different life forms.

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