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EESA10H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Flocculation, Radium Hot Springs, Aquifer


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Study Guide
Midterm

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EESA10 Human Health & the Environment
Lecture 1 Understanding the Health Effects of Environmental Hazards
Your environment is your health!
Everything that has an impact on you is your health
Good or bad quality has an impact
What is the Environment?
Environment is everything that affects a living organism
Effects of environment on human health is so great
o Air
o Water
o Soil
Helps with our crops
o Biota the animal and plant life of a particular region, habitat, or geological
period
Your pets, other people and etc…
o Manmade environment (created by society)
Your homes and etc…
Your environment is your health (but it’s not the only factor influencing your health)
GENETICS!
You can share your home, food, and environment but not everyone will become sick
Even if you are members of the same family not everyone will get sick because we are
not all made up of the same genetic material
We are all not prone to the same illnesses and diseases
Gene-Environment Interaction
Models of gene-environment interaction
o Genetic makeup increases exposure to an environmental risk factor
o Genetic makeup increases susceptibility to an environmental risk factor
o Genetic makeup and environmental factor are independent risk factors
What is Environmental Health?
“In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects of human health,
disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by factors in the environment
WHO
This includes the study of both the direct and the indirect pathological effects of various
o Chemical
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o Biological
o Physical (only man-made)
Housing, urban development, land use, transportation
Types of Hazards: Chemical Hazard
Chemicals in air
Water
Soil
Food
Genetically modified food
Mercury
Types of Hazards: Biological Hazard
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Allergens
Animals such as bees and poisonous snakes
Can transmit from one to another
Types of Hazards: Physical Hazard
Radiation
Fires
Tornados
Hurricanes
Volcanic eruptions
Earthquakes
Types of Hazards: Social or Behavioural Hazards
Poor diet
Smoking
Drugs
Drinking
Poverty
Types of Hazards: Genetic Traits
Health risks associated with the chromosomal defect that causes Down Syndrome are not
environmental health hazards
Are not environmental health
hazards (they are natural
disasters)
Are not environmental health hazards
(but the chemicals in tobacco smoke
are)
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The Scope of Environmental Health
Chemical Hazards
Genetic Traits Biological Hazards Social or Behavioural
Physical Hazards Hazards
Natural Disasters
*Boundaries are not sharp
Core Concerns of Environmental Health
Focus on chemical, biological, physical hazards
Interactions with genetic traits and with social/behavioural stressors
Emphasis on anthropogenic hazards
Much more than just pollution
As a branch of public health, the field of environmental health takes a population
perspective
Key Themes of this Course
We make the world we live in and we live in the world we make
o Our ancestors used lots of materials and then dispose of it and now we live in the
environment that they have created for us
o We have to find a way to improve the environment our ancestors have made for
us in order to make it liveable
People living a modern Western lifestyle create, use, and dispose of lots of “stuff”
In an ecosystem, nothing ever goes away
Therefore, our “stuff” and its by-products are transported and transformed, but they do
not disappear
There has often been a lack of foresight in adopting new products and technologies
The natural environment is globally connected; trade and travel are increasingly
globalized
o Wherever you go the pollution will find you
o Pollution moves globally
Global disparities in development and health are enormous
Western-style development is not sustainable at a global scale
Environmental Crisis: Human Alteration of Earth
Atmosphere: CO2 increased 30% since the beginning of the industrial revolution
o Atmosphere the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet
Geosphere: 1/3 to ½ of the land surface has been transformed by human action
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