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EESA10H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Unthinkable, Rodenticide, Green Climate Fund

Environmental Science
Course Code
Silvija Stefanovic
Study Guide

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Supplementary material for Lecture 7
Sonia Shah: 3 reasons we still haven't gotten rid of malaria
Most killing infectious disease = malaria
Malaria =carried in the bites of infected mosquitoes
Had malaria since evolved from apes
300 million cases a year, half million deaths
Cure from 1600s = discovered bark of cinchona tree (quinie)
1897, when British army surgeon Ronald Ross discovered mosquitoes carried malaria, not bad air/miasmas
Scientific challenge- Reasons why malaria hard to get rid of
- Parasite that causes alaia is oe of the ost ople ad il pathoges ko to huas lies half it’s
life in cold blooded mosquito and other half in hot human body) both hostile conditions. So the insect is
trying to fight off the parasite. Creature survives and thrives
- It is a shape shifter malaria virus transforms itself 7 times in its life cycle. They all look different and have
different physiology (get cure for one stage but does work on others) can live in our body for very long
- 12 species of mosquitoes carry most of the worlds malaria
Economic challenge malaria occurs in poorest places (live in bad housing, no door screens, no electricity)
Poverty causes malaria
Malaria also cause poverty
- Malaria there at time of harvest, when farmers need to cut their field (but their home sick with the fever)
- Also predispose people to other death
- So take away malaria, likelihood of death from other areas goes down as well.
- Have malaria, economic growth suppressed by 1.3 percent a year
- Hard to spread cure when no infrastructure (roads etc)
Cultural challenge. The people who have the most malaria is people who care about It the least
- Ask people liig i alaia iested plae hat the thik aout alaia, the do’t sa kille disease, the
sa it’s a normal way of life.
- Child may have malaria 12 times before age of 2, but will get it less often later (usually comes and passes but
sometimes people die and it adds up)
- People there think of malaria like we do of cold/flu
Political Challenge
- How to get politial leade to do soethig aout it? You do’t, people usuall
- Main attacks come from outside of malaria places
- The first concerted attack against malaria started in 1950s, it was the first brainchild of the U.S. state
- Effort understood economic challenge to use cheap/easy to use tools such as DDT
- Udestood ultual hallege. Ke the should’t let the alaia people do thigs fo theseles, istead
do it for them.
- Had scientific problem, too much faith in their tools that they stopped malaria research
- Whe those tools stated to fail ad people tued agaist the, the did’t ko hat to do.
- Malaria came back worse cause in most hardest to reach places in the most difficult to control
- WHO called this campaign one of the greatest mistakes by public health
- Latest attempt to tame malaria = last 1990s. financed from outside malaria societies. Now they are doing
more research and continuing economic efforts but now challenge in cultural
- Because bed net treat with insecticides, and distributed. It is surgical. Asking people to put this thing up even
ith soe ioeiees. But the do’t take alaia seiousl like e do’t fo old. like fo us ith the
old, e ould ea asks so those people do’t use thei ets
Got rid of malaria in England because we attacked the malaria way of life (improved roads/houses)
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Supplementary material for Lecture 8
This Company Is Using Bitcoin's Tech To Prevent Foodborne Illness
Taiwan had food problem
19 infants contaminated by automated milk powder
Baby formula scandal from china that hospitalized 54 babies, killing 6
Contamination wide spread cause hard to trace food back to source, partly cause most companies still keep
records about their products on closed databases or slips of paper
This ea, it lauhed the old’s fist lokhai-based app for tracing food products, expanded to other
Blockchain technogly
- is the a of stoig ad oig ifoatio aoss a etok of uses, if ou’e head of it, poal of
crypto curries like itoi ut it’s oe tha that
- spread sheet full of data about transactions hosted on millions of computers simultaneously
- the data easily verifiable
- no centralized version of it, so almost impossible for hackers to corrupt it
- allows customers to scan pig tag and uikl aess ifoatio aout eethig fo a piglet’s date of
birth, medicine it got, to the vaccines it received before its slaughter, and process
predict the traceability market will be worth 14 billion dollars, multinational companies trying to design system
for globally traded products like nestle, unilever, and, walmart
48 million cases of foodborne disease a year = 1/6 americans every year
Before pilot program took 7 days, after (using code or upc sticker), can tell you which farms it came from in 2.2
seconds. (7 days, people could get sick. If retailer, find problem salvage mangos)
Blok hai ould sae lies, ut ot sile ullet, a’t ofi that ifo i the sste is oet
(human/machine has to put in data lie or mistake can happen)
- But sie it’s aoous, people ot likel to heat
Chasing Outbreaks: How Safe Is Our Food? | Retro Report | The New York Times
Jack in the box restaurants killed 4 children and alerted people
Fast food hamburgers contaminated, 2 children died, dozens hospitalized
Contaminated food increased by 5 folds
10s of millions Americans get food poisoning every year
Bill cliton taking office, food poisoning on rise
CHILDREN mainly effected, byt strain of bacteria called E COLI o157 (which lives in cows stomach)
Jak i the o did ot ook it’s hauges to a high eough tepeatue to kill the eoli, hih et agaist
Washigto’s rules but beef contaminated from before
Suspected to be contaminated at slaughter house. Beef carcass before contaminated by dangerous bacteria,
Following down into blood or feces on the floor
Use very old 100 year check strategy on cows, sniffed and poked them (what we could see/smell) but bacteria
a’t e foud that a
Slaughters companies thought of bacteria as normal, and though consumers should just cook it well
Only protection was cooking process
Now, it is mandatory for no ecoli in raw meat (its adulterant)- a’t sell if eoli peset
Ecoli declined, but in 2006 came back in other sources like spinach
Due to pig and cow droppings in California farm
Confusing overlap between the two
FDA almost never inspects farms
Law not fully implemented, slow to respond.
Salmonella (in chickens) dangerous strains like salmonella heidelberg have never been declared adulterants
(more common but less dangerous than ecoli)
Linked foster farms to chicken. Took year to make them stop and many people getting sick.
Did’t easue concentration, took while
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