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EESA10H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Lead, Hydrogen Sulfide, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Study Guide
Final

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EESA10 Notes
LEC01 – Introduction to environmental health threats
Your environmental health threats: smog, air pollution
Some things in the environment make people get sick – some people get sick and other
people dont why?
Environment influences our health, but it is not the only factor – other factors include
genes
The agents of the that affect environment are in crisis
We change the environment through human activities: (we do these because we want to
increase life satisfaction, but humans went beyond the boundaries – beyond the
sustainable environmental usage)
oGeosphere: through mining area
oBiosphere: by cutting and clearing forests
oIndustrialization
oOverpopulation leads to overconsumption – materialism and production of more
goods which will lead to higher population
The effect of these human activities on environment:
oWide species – the health of these species decline – we look at other organism
that give us an indication that we are facing an environmental crisis – example:
frogs, the number of frogs declined significantly
othese means that there could be potential threats to human health as well
huge amount of diseases can be preventable if we do something about the environment
two of the most hazardous environmental diseases (that kills many kids in countries like
Africa and Asia) are diarrhea and respiratory infections – these are very treatable in our
environment but are deadly in other areas of the world
difficult to assess – its difficult to prove that air pollution or environment causes diseases
– controversy between scientists about whether some diseases are environmental diseases
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there is a big different between the occurrence of environmental diseases between people
with different social class (rich and poor) and between different racial groups and
difference between developed and developing countries
chart of 1992 – highest percentage of Hispanic people are affected by air pollution,
African American most affected by sulfur dioxide pollution
poverty (under social hazard) is the biggest risk to get sick / to get an environmental
disease
smoking is a social hazard – it can be voluntary or involuntary (2nd hand smoking)
Video – Everyday Carcinogens
Sandra claims some cancers and other health problems are related to environmental
conditions
this claim remains very controversial, some scientists and regulators believe that her
statements are not very strong and not very scientific
another group (some scientist and environmental activists) believes she is very right
there is no 1 study that constitute absolute truth to this issue but there are many smaller
studies that link together to tell a story
Evidence linking cancer to the environment
oCancer registries: measures incidence of cancer in our country – incidence trends
show that non-tobacco related cancer have been rising in all age groups (from
infants to elderly) in both genders and they are apparent ever since the 1970s
changes in hereditary cannot account for this, nor can better detection nor can
changes in lifestyle (exercise and diet) – childhood cancers have increased double
since 1959 and jumped 10% in the last decade – testicular cancer are also in rise
among young men (tripped in incidence rate since WW2), bone marrow cancer,
brain cancer, non-halogen cancer – are also on the rise
oComputer mapping: this takes the data from cancer registries and plot where the
incidence occur on geographic areas – not a random tragedy – places that use the
most pesticide have the highest rates of cancer – this is a correlation a possible
link between environment and cancer
oOur own bodies: there are many chemical residues in our body – these chemicals
partition themselves in different parts of the body – endocrine disruptors: mimic
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or interfere with our hormones (messengers for our genes) that get inside our cells
to alter the expression of genes – we cant just look at the chemicals that cause
mutations – timing of exposure (the dose makes the poison) – we regulate
according to this paradigm, but a new science tells us that there are windows of
vulnerability that we each go through in which at different ages we are most
sensitive to different amounts of chemicals that set us up for future risk of cancers
(we enter and leave the windows of vulnerability)
oAnimal studies: there was a parallel epidemic in animals as it does in humans
i.e. whales, fish, salamanders, etc with cancer – also animals in more prestigious
places do not have cancer while animals in other areas do
Scientist proof making set the standards very high (95% chance)
Occupational risk – one group that has excess rates of non-hoegin are farmers, gold
course supervisors, pesticide applicators – all they have in common is that they are in
contact with pesticide
Dogs who use weed killers in backyard are more likely to have canine non-hogegins
Contamination pyramid from plants to animals to humans – dioxin in breast milk
LEC02 – Airborne hazards
Smog and air pollution became a problems in the beginning of the industrial revolution
Case 1 London smog 1952
oLasted 2 weeks on December 1952
oThe weather has some impact
oLondon is known for its humid air, and during that 15 days, temperature was
relatively low (1degree C) – humididty was very high (80%), air was stagnant/still
– this cold weather and fog increased the demand for heating (by coal burning –
the major source of energy at that time)
oHuge amount of ashe, particulate matter and sulfuric acid was released in a short
period of time by burning coal in still air
oIn addition, industries have to burn coal
ocars and busses need their headlights on
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