EESA10H3 Study Guide - Fetus, Radiography, Testicular Cancer
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Week 1 – Lecture 1 – Chapter 1
What is environmental health?
- According to the WHO:
o “In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects of human health,
disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by factors in the environment.”
o “This includes the study of both the direct and the indirect pathological effects of various
o We’ve changed the environment through various human activities. Why? – Humans want
life satisfaction even if it means to go beyond boundaries.
Chemical (in water, air, soil, food) –
Atmosphere: CO2 (30% increase since the industrial revolution), CFC,
Sulfur and Nitrogen (acid rain), Methane (60% increase)
Biological (Bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals such as bees and
poisonous snakes – (more freshwater is used)
Geosphere (geo=land): 1/3 to 1/2 of the land surface has been transformed
by human action – mostly through mining.
Biosphere (bio=life): ¼ of the bird population is now extinct (same goes to
amphibians) – mostly d/t cutting and clearing forests.
Physical – (radiation, fire, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake)
Social - (Unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, poverty,
smoking) - (housing, urban development, land use, transportation)
Industrialization – greater than population growth – d/t fossil fuels,
automobile industry, synthetic materials – higher population = more need
for materials and production
Industrialization and Population (Overpopulation and Overconsumption)
determines environmental transformation – main driving forces of
- The declining health of other organisms is the clearest indicator of environmental threats to
o Frogs – decrease in numbers – decreased reproduction and bad health
No single factor is responsible:
Increase UV (thinning of stratospheric ozone)
Traces of toxic chemicals
Infections (fungi and bacteria)
Predators (foreign introduced)
- Environmental factors are responsible for 25 % of all preventable diseases – however scientists
today argue the relevance or relationship between the environment and health as it is difficult to
- In developing countries diarrhea and respiratory infections are heading the list
- Protecting the environment has been a mainstay of public health practices since 1878
- Rich & Poor
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