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ch 3_

6 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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Chapter 3: Water Quality and Water Resources
- Water is essential to human life, and it is needed to be plentiful for human to survive.
- Industrial wastes and climate change pose both new and old threats to our water supply
- The next info is going to be about how to maintain quality and water quantity...
Introduction
- We endure the potential diseases in contaminated water since the 19th century
o Some diseases include diarrheal diseases which kill 2 million annually
- Even though we have improved our ways of water sanitation, it still leaves 20% without
improved drinking supplies
- Evidence have shown that changing the means of human waste disposal is much better
than purifying your water supplies
Sources of Water
- 7KHUH¶VDOVRVXUIDFHZDWHUDQGWKHUH¶VJURXQGZDWHU
o Surface water is
Streams, lakes, and rivers
PRVWFRQWDPLQDWHGEHFDXVHLW¶VRQWKHVXUIDFHEHLQJSURQHWRFKHPLFDOV
and microbial pathogens from waste runoff from nearby land
o Ground water is...
Artesian or other types of wells
Not as contaminated because its beneath the soil which act as filters for
the water...
However, ground water can be contaminated if waste on top seeps
through...such as a landfill.
Once ground water is contaminated, the water stays contaminated for a
long time
Uses of Water
- :DWHULVQ¶WRQO\WREHFRQVXPHG,W¶VDFWXDOO\WKHOHDVWZHGRZLWKZDWHU
- 70% of water is used for agriculture
o 88% in Africa (highest), and 31% in Europe (lowest)
o US and Europe use 55% of their water for industries
o In industries, water is used for cooling or flushing equipment, which then leads to
rivers, streams, etc. (contaminated water)
o Home wise...
Most is used for toilet flushing, then clothes washers, and then faucets
Sources of Contamination
- Chemicals can enter into water through a number of ways...
o Fertilizers and pesticides are washed away from land and brought to streams,
lakes, and rivers (surface water)
o This can happen to animal waste in the similar fashion
o Heavy landfills can have their chemicals seep through into ground water
o (YHQ(DUWK¶VFUXVWFRQWDPLQDWHVWKHZDWHUZLWKDUVHQLFDQGUDGRQZKHQZDWHULV
in contact with it
o Also, treating water with chemicals and disinfectants have a chance for it to be
still present in our drinking water
- Sources of contaminants that discharge into receiving waters from a pipe or other
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LGHQWLILDEOHGHYLFHDUHFDOOHG³SRLQWVRXUFH
o These include industrial wastes, and sewage treatment plants
- The sources of contamiQDQWVWKDWGRQ¶WXVHYLVLEOHSLSHVDUHFDOOHGCCQRQ-SRLQWVRXUFH
o Including agricultural run off, oil run off, chemicals from streets, etc, etc
- $FWVVXFKDVWKH³86&OHDQZDWHUDFW´DQGWKH³VDIHZDWHUGULQNLQJDFW´KDV
tremendously reduced the amount of point source contaminants
o Even though we reduced point source contaminants, water is still vulnerable to
non-point source contaminants
Water Treatment Process
- Even though we have been treating water for a long time, the water treatment process
changes very little
- The Water Process
o Water is pumped from source
o Held in settling tanks, where water is treated with chlorine to get rid of microbial
pathogens and sediments
o Coagulant is then added. This makes small particles (organic matter/microbes)
stick together in water
o Then flocculation happens, when they stir the water so the particles stick together,
EHLQJKHDYLHUDQGODUJHUWKH\¶OOVLQNWRWKHERWWRP
- Since the above steps are just to get rid of small particles, it is not chemical free.
- Treating the water with chlorine, or other forms such as ultra violet light or ozone, is
needed to disinfect the water before it gets distributed
- Reverse osmosis and other filtration techniques are becoming more common with the
demand for higher water quality.
- In developing worlds, is kind of hard to have such a complex water treatment process.
- Even though boiling water can take away chemicals, it requires energy....energy that they
GRQ¶WKDYH
o Alternatives have been on arise
Black water bottles to collect solar energy to heat up the water inside,
disinfecting the water!?!?! Who would want to do that
Biological Threats to our Water Quality
- WHO (World health Org.) says there are 5 ways water can be associated with human
disease...
o Waterborne: diseases transmitted from microorganisms that survive in water and
are ingested.
o Water washed: diseases such as trachoma and skin/eye infections that are from
inadequate washing of hands/food
o Water based: diseases such as schistosomiasis that form in fresh water and can
come in contact through bathing/digesting and dracunculiasis
o Water related: diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, organisms that
breed/spend a part of their lifecycle in water7KH\GRQ¶WDFWXDOO\FRPHLQFRQWDFW
with human host...
o Water dispersed infections: caused by microorganisms such as legionella, that
reproduce in water supplies, and then transmitted to humans by air
- Most of the above diseases/infections infect the gastrointestinal tract
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Description
Chapter 3: Water Quality and Water Resources - Water is essential to human life, and it is needed to be plentiful for human to survive. - Industrial wastes and climate change pose both new and old threats to our water supply - The next info is going to be about how to maintain quality and water quantity... Introduction - We endure the potential diseases in contaminated water since the 19 century o Some diseases include diarrheal diseases which kill 2 million annually - Even though we have improved our ways of water sanitation, it still leaves 20% without improved drinking supplies - Evidence have shown that changing the means of human waste disposal is much better than purifying your water supplies Sources of Water - %K0708,O848:71,.0Z,907,39K0708J74:3Z,907 o Surface water is Streams, lakes, and rivers 2489.439,2L3,90-0.,:80L98439K08:71,.0 -0L3J5743094.K02L.,O8 and microbial pathogens from waste runoff from nearby land o Ground water is... Artesian or other types of wells Not as contaminated because its beneath the soil which act as filters for the water... However, ground water can be contaminated if waste on top seeps through...such as a landfill. Once ground water is contaminated, the water stays contaminated for a long time Uses of Water - :,907L83943O94-0.438:20 ,98,.9:,OO9K0O0,89Z04ZL9KZ,907 - 70% of water is used for agriculture o 88% in Africa (highest), and 31% in Europe (lowest) o US and Europe use 55% of their water for industries o In industries, water is used for cooling or flushing equipment, which then leads to rivers, streams, etc. (contaminated water) o Home wise... Most is used for toilet flushing, then clothes washers, and then faucets Sources of Contamination - Chemicals can enter into water through a number of ways... o Fertilizers and pesticides are washed away from land and brought to streams, lakes, and rivers (surface water) o This can happen to animal waste in the similar fashion o Heavy landfills can have their chemicals seep through into ground water o ;03,79K8.7:89.439,2L3,9089K0Z,907ZL9K,7803L.,37,43ZK03Z,907L8 in contact with it o Also, treating water with chemicals and disinfectants have a chance for it to be still present in our drinking water - Sources of contaminants that discharge into receiving waters from a pipe or other www.notesolution.com
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