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ch 10

2 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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Chapter 10: Body Burdens of Industrial Chemicals in the General Population
- Body burden is defined as the quantity of an exogenous substance or its metabolites that
has accumulated in an individual or population
- Focus on the class of organochlorines because there is ample data on their presence in
human tissues and considerable concern about their global accumulation, toxicity, and
impact on human and wildlife health
Body-Burden Estimation
- $QLQGLYLGXDO¶VERG\EXUGHQRIDSROOXWDQWLVHVWLPDWHGE\ measuring the concentration
of that substance in one or more tissues, usually by gas chromatography/mass
spectrometry (GC/MS)
- Chemical body burdens are complex and dynamic in a number of ways, and these
characteristics make a full characterization of thHJHQHUDOSXEOLF¶VERG\EXUGHQ
exceedingly difficult:
o First, the body burden of a pollutant is not stable over time. It reflects a dynamic
balance between the amount taken in and the amount excreted or metabolized into
another material
o Chemicals that are persistent are those that resist metabolic alteration and
excretion and/or are tightly bound to the tissues in which they are stored
o Second, body burdens are not distributed homogeneously within an individual:
the partitioning of a pollutant among various tissues and fluids reflects the
VXEVWDQFH¶VGHJUDGDELOLW\DQGDIILQLW\IRUIDWVPLQHUDOVDQGRWKHUHQGRJHQRXV
materials
o 7KLUGWKHERG\EXUGHQRIDQLQGLYLGXDOLQWRGD\¶VHQYLURQPHQWFRQVLVWVRI
hundreds of synthetic substances
o The ability of chemical analyses based on GC/MS to characterize the full range of
contaminants is limited in a number of ways
o Compounds can be identified only if they are present in concentrations above a
detection level (usually in parts per trillion or billion)
o Substances present in very low quantities will not be detected, but if there are
hundreds or thousands of them, together they may make up the bulk of the total
chemical burden
o Routine analyses can identify only compounds that can be matched against a
reference database of chemical signatures, so substances that are not yet in the
database go uncharacterized
o Thus, novel or exotic compounds, such as many industrial by-products,
environmental breakdown products, and metabolic products, will remain
unidentified in even the most rigorous analysis
Biomonitoring Programs in the United States
- Public health officials and scientists use biomonitoring information for surveillance, control,
and treatment
- The purpose of many biomonitoring programs has been to assess the health risks of
occupationally or environmentally exposed individuals
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Description
Chapter 10: Body Burdens of Industrial Chemicals in the General Population - Body burden is defined as the quantity of an exogenous substance or its metabolites that has accumulated in an individual or population - Focus on the class of organochlorines because there is ample data on their presence in human tissues and considerable concern about their global accumulation, toxicity, and impact on human and wildlife health Body-Burden Estimation - 3L3L;L:,O8-4-:70341,54OO:9,39L8089L2,90- measuring the concentration of that substance in one or more tissues, usually by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) - Chemical body burdens are complex and dynamic in a number of ways, and these characteristics make a full characterization of th0J0307,O5:-OL.8-4-:703 exceedingly difficult: o First, the body burden of a pollutant is not stable over time. It reflects a dynamic balance between the amount taken in and the amount excreted or metabolized into another material o Chemicals that are persistent are those that resist metabolic alteration and excretion andor are tightly bound to the tissues in which they are stored o Second, body burdens are not distributed homogeneously within an individual: the partitioning of a pollutant among various tissues and fluids reflects the 8:-89,3.080J7,,-LOL9,3,11L3L91471,982L307,O8
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