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ch 12

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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Chapter 12: Radiation and Health
- Concern about Radiation: Is exposure generated by nuclear-power-plant accidents or by
contamination from nuclear facilities during normal operation?
- 3 major nuclear-reactor accidents have occurred since the creation of nuclear power:
1. Windscale, England in 1957
2. Three Mile Island plant in Pennsylvannia in 1979
3. Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union in 1986
- Radon gas emanating from underlying geological formations or building materials in
homes is a far more common and significant source of public exposure to ionizing
radiation than emissions from nuclear plants
- Epidemiologic science (study of populations) that tries to relate very low radiation
exposures to cancer is still unproven ± lack of scientific certainty fuels public
controversy:
o What level is acceptable?
- 5HFHQW<HDUVQRQLRQL]LQJUDGLDWLRQ9SXEOLFDWWHQWLRQ
- Radiation inspires a special dread
- 0DQ\UDGLDWLRQVFLHQWLVWVEHOLHYHWKDWSSOGRQ¶WXQGHUVWDQGWKDWVPRNLQJDQGGULYLQJDUH
much more dangerous than exposure to low levels of radiation
Types of Radiation
- Ionizing and nonionizing radiation
- Ionizing portion of the spectrum includes gamma rays and ultraviolet radiation
- The distinguishing feature of ionizing radiation is that it has a photon or particle
VXIILFLHQWO\HQHUJHWLFWREUHDNFKHPLFDOERQGV:GDPDJLQJWKH'1$RIDQDWRPRU
PROHFXOHLQWLVVXH:FDUFLQRJHQLF
- Nonionizing radiation is not energetic enough to disrupt electrons and hence is not
WKRXJKWWREHJHQRWR[LF:%ut it can heat tissue
- (OHFWURPDJQHWLFILHOGV(0)V:LQLWLDOO\EHOLHYHGWREHELRORJLFDOO\LQDFWLYHEXW
proposed otherwise
- Melatonin (biological clock hormone made by pineal gland)hypothesis:
o 5HGXFWLRQLQWKHSLQHDOJODQG¶VQRFWXUQDOSURGXFWLRQRIPHODWRQLQ:FDXVH
LQFUHDVHVXVFHSWLELOLW\WR'1$GDPDJHWKURXJKDUHGXFWLRQRIPHODWRQLV
antioxidant action
Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation
- Sources of radiation health effects come from:
o Long-term follow-up of the survivors of the atomic bombings Hiroshima and
Nagasaki
o Studies of patients receiving diagnostic and therapeutic radiation
o Studies of occupational cohorts (groups) with prolonged exposures
- Ionizing radiation produces 2 kinds of cell injury: immediate and delayed
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Description
Chapter 12: Radiation and Health - Concern about Radiation: Is exposure generated by nuclear-power-plant accidents or by contamination from nuclear facilities during normal operation? - 3 major nuclear-reactor accidents have occurred since the creation of nuclear power: 1. Windscale, England in 1957 2. Three Mile Island plant in Pennsylvannia in 1979 3. Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union in 1986 - Radon gas emanating from underlying geological formations or building materials in homes is a far more common and significant source of public exposure to ionizing radiation than emissions from nuclear plants - Epidemiologic science (study of populations) that tries to relate very low radiation exposures to cancer is still unproven lack of scientific certainty fuels public controversy: o What level is acceptable? - #0.039<0,78343L43L]L3J7,L,9L435:-OL.,99039L43 - Radiation inspires a special dread - ,37,L,9L438.L039L898-0OL0;09K,955O439:30789,39K,9824NL3J,37L;L3J,70 much more dangerous than exposure to low levels of radiation Types of Radiation - Ionizing and nonionizing radiation - Ionizing portion of the spectrum includes gamma ra
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