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Midterm

EESB18H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Seismic Wave, Seismology, Hypocenter


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESB18H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Study Guide
Midterm

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Earthquake, geology, Seismology, and engineering
What is an earthquake?
Earthquake is measured by magnitude, release of energy
A fault is a fracture, a crack in the earth across which the two sides relative to each other.
Plates can move by slip which moves side ways of each other,
Hypocenter is a deep point, everything starts. Shallow is everything above 140 km inside
earth,
Shallow is more dangerous because it is close to earth surface therefore it carries higher
impact on surface.
Epicenter is vertical up to the surface
Surface rupture is the only tiny area with line on fig 3.2
Recording earth motion
The study of seismology is use to measure earthquake
Seismic waves
Wavelength, period, frequency: involves low and high frequency, it carries certain
infraction, amplitude: doing up and down
Attenuation: some of the wave depending on the frequency it can reduce the amplitude.
green is going slow so it is low frequency, long distance amplitude is still seen as a wave.
With high frequency, blue, is going fast therefore near the end the amplitude is almost
zero.
Resonance: natural frequency, includes storms. Blue in fig 3.9. in the beginning red and
blue have same frequency however, after some time they get disruption, so the red wave
moves in high amplitude, which can destroy the building. But the same frequency will
not cause any damage.
Body wave: travel all the way through the earth. Frequency 0.02-30
Surface wave: only going through the surface of the earth.-
Primary P wave and Secondary S wave.
Primary Wave:
First wave , first bump on the wave is the beginning of the primary wave. It is moving
with the method push and pull (back and forth). It can travel any material; solid, liquid,
gas.
Velocity depends on the density and compressibility of the material.
Secondary wave
Comes second
They move vertical or in horizontal method
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