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ENGB04 EXAM REVIEW Lecture 1 o Prose: sentences ordered in paragraphs, meaning determines form, connects using grammar o Poetry: lines distinct from sentences that are organized in stanzas, how something is said is part of its meaning o Ordinary speech differs from prose: we do not think in complete sentences; the brain processes words in chunks/ we do not speak in complete sentences; we must take breaths after groups of words o Speech is divided into writing (prose) and music (poetry) o Poetry draws attention to words as words - sound: rhythm, rhyme, repetition - appearance: line length, pattern, order o lyric poetry: expression of emotion/ understanding, usually captures a moment/ state of being (short, beautiful, personal, private) ex James Blunt “You’re Beautiful” Gotye “Somebody that I used to know” Adele “Rolling in the Deep” o when are song lyrics not poetry: too much repetition of the same words, no syntactical logic, no argument, no change/ development, beats fall on insignificant words, syllables are drown out over several beats But some song lyrics survive on the page as poetry: doesn’t need music/ the singers voice/ invites the reader to speak these lines Ex. Clouds by Joni Mitchell “bows and flows of angel hair” > quatrains, metaphor AAAB CCCB rhyme internal rhyme (bows and flows) alliteration of k and s/z sounds 7 7 8 6 syllables 4 4 4 3 beats > pattern of two’s: alteration of beats and offbeats, two rhyme words in every quatrain, two contrasting stanzas about clouds, a third stanza about clouds expresses impossibility of deciding : rhyme emphasizes present moment and finality; dialectic= happiness- sadness- acceptance/ clouds- love- life (pattern of threes) o Tension= speaker has learned something, she has learned that she knows nothing o Other kinds of poetry are usually more public: - narrative- tells a story - satire- - ode- praise poem o ballad= 4 3 4 3 beat pattern 4 x 4 template if one line has only 3 beats, it will be the 4 line if two lines have 3 beats, they will be the (2nd and 4 lines= rhyme) • Genre 1. narrative: tells a story from a single storyteller 2. dramatic: (dramatic monologue)= overhearing a conversation being a listener/ (soliloquy)= 3. lyric: 1 speaker, 1 idea 4. elegy: (pastoral elegy)= describing how beautiful nature and the country is) 5. Sestina: (Bishop- Sestina) 6. Villanelle: (Bishop- One Art) 19 lines 7. Ballad: (Anonymous- Barbara Allen) written vs. oral • Rhythm 1: (Blake- The Tygr) • Rhythm 2: (Ezekiel- Poet, Love, Birdwatcher) - rhythm: a series of syllables arranged so the reader expects a similar pattern to follow • Racing time: (Herrick- To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time) • Slowing down time: (Campbell- Briland Aubade) • Preserved time: (Larkin- An Arundel Tomb) • Line 1 (Herbert- The Collar) • Line 2: Whitman (Ginsberg- A Supermarket in California) • Paths: (Frost- The Road Not Taken) • Stanza: (Herbert- Easter Wings) • Rooms: (Dickinson- The Soul Selects her own Society) • Rhyme: (Poe- The Raven) - rhyme: words that sound alike • Sonnet:
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