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Poetry Exam Terms.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Daniel Tysdal

Poetry Exam Terms:  “The Tyger”- Tyger!/ Tyger!/ burning/ bright (trochaic tetrameter) Free verse- relatively new invention, lines have irregular # of beats - Dactyl- stressed, unstressed, unstressed ‘uu - verse in which the lines are different widths  This is the/forest prim/eval the/ murmuring/ pines and - no regular rhyme scheme the/ hemlocks (dactylic hexameter) - invented by poets who had been brought up in the tradition of free verse To stress importance, or unimportance: - admits an element of chance- may not adhere to the rigid - Spondee- stressed, stressed structure of the past, but can still have its own structure - Pyrrhic- unstressed, unstressed Metrical verse- poems in counted lines, metrical lines and patterns, there End Stop- a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse (can be a can be lines and stanza forms comma, period, or semicolon). - poems in counted lines are written in units called feet - foot: one stressed syllable accompanied by 1 or 2 unstressed Enjambment- when a sentence is on two lines, carries over to the next. May syllables rely on caesura. Ex. “They lie scattered// like inflated pebbles. Native//” - iambic meter most common Caesura- a pause in the middle of a poem. Ex. My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. stanza lengths (can be found in metrical or free verse):  couplets- pairs of lines Rhyme scheme- pattern of rhyme  quatrains- 4 lines  sestets- 6 Alliteration- repetition of particular consonants  octave- 8 Assonance- repetition of vowels Tetrameter- whose woods/ these are/ I think/ I know (iambic) Ballad Stanza - first and third lines are unrhymed and have 4 beats Pentameter- the woods/ decay,/ the woods/ decay/ and fall/ (iambic) Hexameter- I will/ arise/ and go/ now, and/ go to/ Innisfree (iambic) - second and fourth lines are rhymed and have 3 beats *common meters have been trimester, tetrameter, pentameter Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet - appeared first - has an octave followed by a sestet Rising rhythm: - Iamb- unstressed, stressed u’ - octave: abbaabba - Anapest- unstressed, unstressed, stressed uu’ - sestet: cdecde  “Ah Sunflower”- Where the youth,/ pined away,/ with desire (anapestic trimester) English (Shakespearean) Sonnet - has three 4 line quatrains, rhyming: ababcdcdefef Falling rhythm: - one couplet, gg th - Trochee- stressed, unstressed ‘u - volta: a turn that occurs around the 9 line and is a shift towards a resolution (example: sonnet 18) Villanelle- a French form, used by Theodore Roethke, Bishop - the feeling of being moved; arises out a struggle btw uttering - 5 pentameter tercets (three lines); rhyming aba truth and honoring the undertow of strong feeling - followed by 1 pentameter quatrain; rhyming abaa - when a poem is moving - lines 1 and 3 of the first five tercets are repeated alternatively Content Genres- types of poems: Poetry and Origins in Life (Private, Public, Nature and Time): - Aubade- can be a love poem, where one is waken up by the sun - private life: an event that is a private experience to an individual and speaks - Ekphrasis- verbal representation of a visual, art form expressed as a poem  ex. Brith, adolescence, marriage, death - Elegy- a poem mourning a death, or can be more abstract ex. - public life: moments or events that we can publicly relate to Death of the self, death of a period of time, etc, etc…began as  ex. War, religion holiday, etc metrical - Nativity Poem- birth poem  Often have historic relevance, ex. Langston Hughes’ Harlem- although it is written as though it is a moment in private life, the larger historical context makes the The Narrative Poem/ Narrative Impulse reader realize the poems greater relevance and - form of poetry that tells a story connection to slavery and freedom of rights - makes use of the voices of the characters - ex. Epics, ballads movements. The poem suggests that private rebellions against authorities can lead to dramatic shifts in public - The Ring and the Book by Robert Browning life. - Environment in which the poem is occurring is also taken to The Lyric Poem/ The Lyric Impulse account; spatial setting- is it in nature, in a home, at school? - expresses personal or emotional feeling - may contain aspects of a story, but poem dwells less on plot and - Nature and time:  Nature and changing seasons as a narrative device- more on feeling using spring as a means of expressing individual growth - can be classified by: content, speech act, out/inner form  Seasons describe stages in human life - content- genre - Speech act- manner of expression, apology, protest, etc. - out form- lines, rhyme, length Poetry and Cliché: - poets can work with clichés to come up with original representations Imagery- the representation of sensory experience through language - ex. Infant Sorrow and Infant Joy by William Blake Types of Imagery: - Infant Joys is the typical nativity poem. The mother expresses - visual joy, and wonder what she should name her baby - Infant Sorrow takes the position of the baby and shows an - auditory entirely different picture of birth. The baby is a “fiend.” - olfactory- smell - gustatory- taste - t
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