Martin Luther - an Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, challenged the
authority of the people and attacked several doctrines of the Catholic Church. To him, the Church had become
corrupt, constituting priests who manipulated popular superstition to enrich themselves. He attacked the sale of
indulgences citing that they were fraud; argued that purgatory had no foundation in the bible and Christians could
be saved by faith alone. Stemmed the branch of Protestantism during the Reformation.
Jane Lumley - first Tudor woman to translate a play; composed an English version of the Euripides' Iphigenia at
-1590s, Scotland went on witch craze
-thousands of women wildly accused and little cahnce to defend themselves
-tortured into confessions (what kind? look below ^.^)
-James the first claimed they
-were involved in 1590 conspiracy to kill him with storm when he was getting home with new bride on sea
-they were always plotting against him
Maleficium an evil deed (what kind of deeds were witches charged with?)
-sexual intercourse with the devil
-orgiastic "witches Sabbaths"
dance in plays
-all plays in the period, including Shakespeare's, apparently ended in dance
-brush off theatrical gore and change expression from woe to pleasure
-players were later warned to suppress these entertainments or go to jail
- Most english towns had stocks and whipping post.
- Drunks, fraudulent merchants, adulterers, and quarrelers could be placed in carts or mounted backward on asses
and paraded through the streets for crowd to jeer and throw refuse at.
- Women accused of being scolds could be publicly muzzled by an iron device called a "brank" or tied to a
cucking stool and dunked into the river.
Convicted criminals could have their ears cut off, their noses slit, their foreheads branded.
- Public beheadings (generally reserved for the elite, for example when Queen Elizabeth, February 1587, signed
the death warrant for her cousins (Mary) beheading (21) ) and hangings were common. In the worst cases, felons
were sentenced to be "hanged by the neck, and being alive cut down, and your privy members to be cut off, and
your bowels to be taken out of your belly and there burned, you being alive." (35)
- This was found on page 35 under the heading Alternative Entertainments.
July 1588 - pg 21
When The Invincible Armada, a Spanish war-ship, reached English waters, one of the largest, most famous,
naval battles in European history was fought. During this battle, in what was seen as an act of God, the Spanish
fleet was dispersed and many Spanish soldiers died. The war was between Catholic Spain, backed by Queen
Elizabeths former brother in law, Philip II, and Protestant England.
Exorcism pg 50
Since the Catholics were unable to practice their religion freely, or openly, in Protestant England, they sought a
spectacular way to demonstrate the enduring spiritual power and authenticity of the Roman Church. Thus, they
turned to the ancient ritual of exorcism to demonstrate the Churchs triumph over evil. This ritual used to be
publicly performed, but now had to be conducted secretly in barns in remote villages or in the attics of secluded
houses of their supporters. The missionary priests who presided over the ritual were in danger of brutal
interrogation, torture, and horrible execution. These secret clandestine exorcisms drew substantial crowds in
Blackness: Was considered to be a defect that African people had, although they were considered exotic in
England and Scotland in the 16th century. Later on Africans became increasingly popular to have as servants Climate Theory: At the time some people believed that the darkness of their skin was due to the extreme heat in
the regions where African people
Shakespeare's plays were the property of the theatrical company performing them. Normally companies would
not have their plays in print unless the theatre was closed due to the plague or the company was in need of money
to pay off debts or when a play had been performed so much that the company would not receive any profit
Shakespeare's "Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies" (71)
- highlights elements that Shakespeare shared with his contemporaries , and they insistently remind us that we
are encountering scripts written primarily for the stage and not for the study
- they make us more attentive to such matters as business cycles, plague rolls , the cost of costumes, government
censorship and urban topography and less concerned with the elusive and enigmatic details of the poet's
biography- his supposed youthful escapades and erotic yearnings and psychological crises.
William Tyndale (1525-30): He was an English Lutheran who did a translation of the New Testament, which
was printed on the Continent and smuggled into England in 1525. He later translated the Pentateuch (the first 5
books in the Hebrew Bible) in 1530. Many of the copies were burned and Tyndale was seized and burned himself
Foul papers: Drafts with a lot of revisions and marks in the margins.
Fair Copies: After countless revisions, the "foul papers" would have to be written again (good copies) and given
to the theater companies; although, sometimes only the "foul papers" would be given and no fair copies would
have been made.
Promptbooks: The fair copies (or the foul papers) would be taken and transformed into these promptbooks for
the players, which included stage directions and sound effects. It was also the copy that was presented to the
Master of Revels for licensing and making sure that the content was "acceptable."
The above 3 definitions are from page 72.
Cross Dressing: Enemies of the stage claimed that cross dressing increased sexual desires in both heterosexuals
and homosexuals. Cross dressing technically violated biblical teachings, so religious antitheatricalists attacked
the theatre for that reason and claimed it was one of the reasons why the theatre was 'Satan's domain'.
Maleficium an evil deed (what kind of deeds were witches charged with?) In England, witches were
charged in jury trials for Maleficium ie. evil deeds which included harming neighbours, causing destructive
storms, or killing farm animals. However, unlike the witches in Scotland, they were not charged with Satan
worship. In England, the witchcraft prosecutions happened on a smaller scale; English law prevented judicial
torture and mandated jury trials. Although King James significantly mitigated the Judicial murder of witches
after he came to England in 1603, the brutal witch hunts and severe torture methods continued to occur in
Scotland, where punishment still involved burning at the stake (p 29).
The Paradoxes of Identity - Almost all of Shakespeare's major characters relay a duality of self-division and
inward expansion. Identity transcends costume and social status, yet costume plays a great role in portraying the
notion of identity. This paradox allows us to believe characters exist beyond the play, despite having the
knowledge that they have no inner lives other that what we see on stage (p61).
JULY 1588: Catholic Spain and England were going to war. Elizabeth learned that Philip was planning to invade
England. Spanish ships reached English waters, only to be routed in one of the most famous and decisive naval
battles in European history. Then, what seemed like a miracle happened, a huge storm hit and tore apart the
Spanish ships. After this, Elizabeth (against advisement) chose to appear before the crowds and displayed her
fearlessness. She declared she was not afraid of the Spanish armies. This speech was famous for displaying her
personal courage and her love of england. (21)
The Act of Supremacy:(in English history) either of two Acts of Parliament of 1534 and 1559 (particularly the former), which
established Henry VIII and Elizabeth I as supreme heads of the Church of England and excluded the authority of
supremacy: . the state or condition of being superior to all others in authority, power, or status.
Sale of indulgence: also technically called letters of indulgenceare licences issued or sold by the Roman
Catholic Church granting to sinners who feel regret on having committed sins or misdeeds. With this license that
were issued/sold to these people they were given remission, either whole or partial, of temporal punishment still
due for sins
primogeniture, right of:
A) -the right of succession(taking up title or position) belonging to the firstborn child, especially the feudal rule
by which the whole real estate of an intestate was passed to the eldest son. The word comes (in the early 17th
century) from medieval Latin primogeniture.
B)-The system of inheritance whereby an estate passed to the eldest male heir. In practice, the distinctions were
blurred, for younger children received some provision
My Shakespeare words:
Disparagement p.20 Romeo and Juliet: a). regard or represent as being little worth. B) marry someone of unequal
rank. C)discredit on.
Stoics p.77 taming of the shrew: A) a person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or
complaining. B) followers of the school of philosophy founded on the premise that virtue is attainable only by
living in harmony with nature, stoicism stressed the importance of selfsufficiency and of equanimity. C) A
philosophical school founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium ( 335 2