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Midterm lecture nts.docx

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Majorie Rubright

Shakespeare Lectures 1-6 (Important facts to know) Lecture one:  Shakespeare’s life: apr 23 1564- apr 23 1616 o Writing life: 1590-1613  Shakespeare writes in an Early Modern and Renaissance period  Difference between Early Modern and Renaissance? o Renaissance = rebirth (rebirth of classical arts & culture) th th  16 c (1500’s) to mid/late 17 century  Recovering a lot of ancient writing  Culmination of culture  enlightenment period o Early Modern = doesn’t look backwards like renaissance  Seeds of our origin (looking forward)  Shakespeare’s world: Early modern London o Img: background = buildings; middle = river; forefront= liberties (place outside legal jurisdiction of the city  all illegal things happen incld theatres)  Shakespeare’s world: Early Modern Playhouse  1596 drawing of swan theatre= earliest img we have  Rebuilt globe theatre, London England  Playhouses = open, outdoors  Queen Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII o Death= 1603  Shakes = Renaissance London  Early Modern theatres  invention of Early modern London  Moment of Shakes’s writing too  Before: travelling chariots (drama)  When shakespeare was born, public playhouse theatres begin to emerge  Audience of 3,000 diff kinds of ppl @ once at theatre  Shakes created worlds and brought it to life through performances  Most theatre audience never left London  Atlas invented during Shake’s time o Mercator  world atlas (1595) o Img: Race/ class/ clothing/ rank/ man carrying the world (Europe, Africa, Asia, America) o Backgrnd of euro = church o Bckgrnd of America= human burning (cannibalism)  Shake’s time, ppl dying in the streets for their religious beliefs o More human burnings in London than America at this time  “Native” american’s img  1590 (theodor) o Savage/ burning rituals  1645 portrait of an African Woman  1600 portraits of Africa  Moroccan Ambassador  Travel as the fool’s errand: Dangers of travel o 1590’s  travel & thinking too much about global enterprise makes one a fool o Idea of one sex model  No female actors in shakes’s plays  Anne Bolyn mother of Queen elizabeth  Progress order: o Foul papers (1 draft of a play) o Fair copies o Book of the play Lecture two: Key concepts: st  The curtain; the globe; the fate of the 1 London theatre  Capacity of playhouses  Dangers of the theatre  Gentleman, citizen, Yeomen artificers, laborers  Liberties  Pop of London (1520: 60,000; 1550: 120,000; 1600: 200,000)  Places within the theatre: the yard; Groundlings; Lord’s Room  Theatrical detractors (stage vs pulpit)  Deuteronomy 22:5  Master of the Revels. Sir Edmund Tilney  Allowed copy  Quarto; 1 folio (1623) ; foul papers; fair copy; the book of the play/ prompt book Lecture begins:  Theatre in renaissance England o Theatrical detractors (speaking against the theatre)  Before globe theatre & before its controversy, Londoners already living in a highly theatrical society o Community of spectators  Queen’s procession  Public executions held on scaffolds (word for stage)  James throne 1603  liked to watch plays  Higher than avg merchants sometimes invited to queen’s court o Ex: Moroccan ambassador from north Africa  1560 – LONDON’S ROYAL EXCHANGE o Building for merchants to gather & exchange products o Orange women, jugglers, apple sellers  Other side of river (bear baiting & cock fighting & theatre)  outside legal jurisdiction  Theatricality: merchantilism, bearbaiting, pagents, executions all built into London  Late 1570’s  the curtain 1 opened theatre  Morality plays  vice vs morality  Mystery plays  stuff about Christianity (ex: noah’s arch – mysterious)  City authorities tried to suppress play going b/c dangerous: o Potential for riot o No central police force to control large crowd  Mayor of London personally resp to queen for any disruption o 3,000 ppl across genders & ranks talking/ gossping  Worried about sedition – critical or subversive references to ppl of high state o Infectious  New ideas explored (women authority over husbands; foreigners etc)  Infectious diseases spreading (plague)  Put cloves into their noses thinking that would block the poisonous vapours (though it came from fleas and rats) o Mixing of races and ranks  Detractors didn’t like it o Puritans disapproved of theatres on religious grounds  Boys dressing as women & ppl dressing as o/s = deception & biblical violation  Persuasion with props and clothes that they are king = dangerous in this period o Females meant to elicit sexual desire, cross dressing actors made this confusing  Violation of Deuteronomy 22:5 (must not cross dress)  London = largest city in England; after shake’s death, largest city in Europe o French, dutch, german, Italian immigration into London  Prisoners known as the clink  Merchants sometimes come illegally  Play going viewed as idle activity  Most of the audience = apprentices (7yr apprentice to practice your trade)  Also artizans, students, women go to liven up their livs  Four types of ppl: o Gentlemen o Citizens o Yeomen artificers o Laborers  Gentlemen o No manual labour and have access to education  Idle people  Paradox with idle play goers  Highest rank  Citizens o 7 yr apprenticeships; became promotable w/in the city; held some powerl middle category (almost0  Yeoman o Farmers with own piece of land and some economic indep and some social standing  Laborer o No voice or authority; some respect; at the bottom; manual labour (gendered term)  Leaves out: o Illegal immigrants, not able bodied, slaves, orange women, prisoners (mostly for debt, go to something called debters prison), rogues (anyone wandering around)  1 penny  could buy a ticket for standing room called the yard o Yard ironically = best view o They are called groundlings  2 cents  bench seats  6 pence  Lord’s room o 6 pence = full day’s wage for skilled artisan such as a silk worker o Ironically, least best view o Going to be seen (self advertisement of own economic success)  Shakes bought into the building and maintenance of globe theatre (risky!)  1599- 70 ft inside diameter, 100ft diameter, 3 levels, central room above stage, 2 pillars  globe theatre  No act breaks, scenes ended when characters left  No curtains  all transitions = visible Titus Andronicus Key concepts:  Roman vs Goths: setting  Rome and England: parallels and contracts  Succession crisis: Titus and queen elizabeth I  Space and structures: theatrical resources, structuring doubles  Revenge: the generic context  Passionate grief : expressive langiage  Reading and rape: 2 actions interconnected & central to plot  Mouths: that speak, abuse, that devour  Language of light/dark metaphors & tropes of “racial thinking” Lecture continues: - Most plays printed 7 yrs after shakes death - 5 acts, 3 genres = result of folio - 18 of his plays in quarto before 1623 folio - Plays = products of theatrical companies NOT authors - Folio: fold once (4 sides) most exp. - Quarto folded twice (8 sides) - Octavo- folded thrice (16 sides) least exp. o Paper more exp than ink  Plays begin as foul papers (rough drafts)  fair copies  book of the play (added stage directions) / promptbook (for actor’s lines)  Book of the play went to master of revels (Edmund tilney) who decides whether play can be performed or not o Look for sensitive lines and cuts them out to prevent riots o Prompt book pt of book of the play  None of these are left today, only thing we have is quarto editions o Compiled from foul, fair and prompts Roman Empire and England: 1. England had been a part of the Roman empire 2. Historically, Rome was overrun by Goth and Vandals, Northern European Germanic peoples 3. The English would have understood the Goths as their ethnic ancestors. Like the old English, the Goths were Germanic-speaking ppl of northern Europe 4. O/ origin story of eng= mythic story of brutus son of epic hero aeneas. Brut thought to found Britain. a. Eng sees Rome as own predecessor & Eng as a little roman empire - Romans built roads through England - Eng history deeply tied with roman hist - Play itself staged in 4CE  height of roman empire & right before its fall) Succession crisis as a tragedy - Virgin quwwn elizabeth I  no kids - Henry VIII: o Moves eng from catholic to protestant o 1509-1547, everyone officially catholic - Martin Luther- critique of the catholic church - Henry VIII wants divorce from Catherine Aragon which isn’t sanctioned by the catholic church - Bloodshed of religious reformation, followed by relative era of peace in Elizabeth’s reign (1558-1603) - Succession thought to solve that problem - Queen elizabeth appointed her successor as James of Scotland (became James I of England) Titus: - Earliest and bloodiest Shakes tragedy th - 18 c  thought it was distasteful (too graphic) o Attempts to disassoc shakes from it - Uses physical stage to tell the story o Upper stage; Main stage; Cellarage (below) o Stage direction dramatizes the opposition (play of revenge) - Revenge both a theme and personification - Spanish kid tragedy similar to titus - 1.1  barbarism already enters o Queen of Goths speaks in the Roman lang of nobility appealing to Christian concept of mercy  Person who is merciful becomes more noble by doing so o Word “civilized”  civilians of rome o Barbarians  anyone outside of the civilians/ groups we don’t understand  Ironic tamora considered barbarian when we can understand her as she speaks to the roman ideologies Lecture 3:  Mary = catholic  Henry VIII = protestant  Elizabeth= protestant o 1558-1603 - England= religious state - Eliza’s time= more protestants - Titus: opens up w. succession crisis - Structuring doubles: barbarians = Goths & civilians= Romans - Lavinia’s body signifies Rome - Saturninus= power driven (shows power to everyone0 - Verbal agreements in marriage in early mod eng very impt  almost seems ille
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