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ENGC44H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cultural Hegemony, Pathos, Critical Thinking

Course Code
Ted Petit
Study Guide

of 3
HUMA01 Exam
- Epistemology: branch of philosophy concerning nature, source, limits, scope & validity of knowledge
: asks questions such as “How do we know what we know?”
- Knowledge: expertise & skills acquired by a person through experience/education
: What is known in particular field or overall, in facts & info
: made in 2 broad-based ways Empirical vs. Speculative Analytic/Critical
Plato’s definition: justified true belief
- University: a repository of knowledge (libraries, textbooks, professors’ heads)
: Place where new knowledge is created through research, peer review, publication, conversation
Critical thinking: intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing
: based on universal intellectual values that exceed subject matter divisions
Empirical thinking: practical and based on experience (experimental, observational)
Speculative thinking: theoretical (abstract, analytical, conceptive)
- Humanities Importance
1. Critical thinking
2. Greater understanding of the world (diversity & interaction)
3. Training of imagination
- Representation
1. social process of making meaning by making sings stand for something = POWER
through text, image and sound
2. to take or fill the place of
stand in for something with honour and for awareness
3. to symbolize, always frame reality in very specific ways
4. to act as a symbolic sign or substitute for a person/thing
power and control
5. To bring clearly & distinctly before mind/imagination
6. To portray in an artistic medium or by artistic means to depict/vote
7. *convey ideas therefore = IDEOLOGICAL
- Ideology
Set of ideas giving account of social world (partial/selective)
Relationship of ideas/values in which power is distributed socially
The way that values are posed as “natural/obvious” and “common sense”
Set of beliefs involving customs, habits, and practices given to a culture and some can be hegemonic
Causes revolutions and allows discrimination
- Hegemony
Refers to one nation’s rule or dominance over another and process of consensus information
Cultural hegemony the maintaining position of dominance in a culture
Hegemonic ideological systems not changeable
An artificial imitation/representation of something
The aspect, appearance/form of someone/something
Visual representation/counterpart of an object or scene
Mental representation of something created not by directed perception
To form a mental image of (imagining)
- Text
Writing seen as intrusion into life world
Plato: writing is inhuman, unresponsive, and destroys memory
- Sound
Keeps close to human life world (personalizes things & issues)
A conservative society
- Semiology/Semiotics
Study of signs (a way to understand culture)
Intellectual tool widely used within humanities disciplines
1. Ferdinand de Saussere
meaning of sign = dependent on social, historical & cultural context
depends on frame of reference
connection between signifier & signified = arbitrary not in a “natural” relationship
signs only make sense as part of formal, generalized, abstract system
signs = associative
implications - we can only think within terms of sign system, NOT outside of it
2. Charles Sander Peirce
a stimulus pattern that has meaning
1) Iconic
pattern that physically remembers what it stands for
2) Indexical
defined by sensory features (5 senses)
associated with space and time
3) Symbolic
using words (nouns, verbs, adjectives)
o Signs
A representation and conveys authority
Socially constructed ideas
Infused with ideologies therefore deals w/ issues of power
- Discourse
Formalized way of thinking shown through language
Social boundary defining details on specific topic
“limits of acceptable speech”
- Denotation: the obvious meaning of a photograph, what it literally shows
- Connotation: aspect that grabs emotions and attention
Methods of Persuasion
1. Ethos
Moves audience by proving credibility/trustworthiness
One of 3 types of persuasion
Ethical appeal of the writer through the tone
2. Logos
More logic involved and ideas presented to audience
Appeals to patterns, conventions, modes of reasoning
Persuades through powers of reasoning
3. Pathos
Seeks to change attitudes & actions of audience using emotions
- Propaganda
Deliberate attempt to shape perceptions, influence emotions, attitudes, opinions & actions
Direct behaviour to achieve response
Systematic form of purposeful persuasion
- Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
Prisoner got trapped into a cave, could only see shadows of figures therefore named them tree, girl, house.
Prisoners are unsure about everything but they use their source of “knowledge” to create their world
If they were to come out into the daylight and see what happened, nobody would believe him
Reality was nothing but shadows
What is Art?
Expression and imagination of creativity
Plato saw art as skilled craft and can make everything “art”
art = LIE
Art = expression communicates something of feelings and emotions (artists role = make us “feel”)
Art = beauty & form lifts and elevates us to be better
Art = social institution has essential connection to aesthetic/formal/expressive properties