ENGC33- Deceit, Dissent, and the English Civil Wars Exam Review.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Rebecca L Wiseman

ENGC33: Deceit, Dissent, and the English Civil Wars Exam Review ▯ ▯ Major Historical Events 1603-1649 1603: The death of Queen Elizabeth; James I becomes king 1625: The death of James I; Charles I succeeds him 1629: Charles I dissolves Parliament, beginning his “personal rule” 1642-1649: The English Civil Wars 1649: Charles I is executed 1653-1660 1653: Oliver Cromwell begins his “reign” as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 1658: Cromwell dies; his son, Richard Cromwell, succeeds him, but his rule is unsuccessful 1660: The “Convention Parliament” is called and votes to restore the monarchy; Charles II becomes king ▯ Important Literary Dates (just to give you a sense of context) Key Dates in Literary History 1605: Jonson, The Masque of Blackness
 1606: Jonson, Volpone
 1620: Bacon, New Organon
 1633: Donne, Songs and Sonnets; Herbert, The Temple 1646: Crashaw, Steps to the Temple Scintillans (Vols. 1 and 2)
s and Magistrates 1650/1655: Henry Vaughan, Silex 1651: Hobbes, Leviathan
 1666: Cavendish, The Blazing World 1674: Paradise Lost (2nd edition); death of Thomas Traherne ▯ Michel Foucault • Born in 1926 in Poitiers, France; died in 1984 in Paris • Aphilosopher, Foucault was especially interested in the ways political institutions can control, coerce, and dominate individuals • The Order of Things was his first influential book: it is a “history of knowledge,” an exploration of what it meant to understand the world from the 16th century to the present ▯ The Four Similitudes •Convenientia (“adjacency”)- brings like things together and makes adjacent things similar”: proximity both signifies and produces resemblance. Those resemblances, or similitudes, “link” the world together “like a chain” •Aemulatio (“emulation”)- when resemblances occur even if objects are not close together in space. Emulation is “the means by which things scattered through the universe can answer one another”. Instead of the “chain” of resemblances created by convenientia, emulation links the world in “a series of concentric circles reflecting and rivalling one another” •Analogy- Relationships between certain objects are “echoed” and repeated in other kinds of relationship: the relationship between the stars and the sky is like the relationship between the eyes and the human face, for example, “Man’s body is always the possible half of a universal atlas” •Sympathy- Complimentary qualities drive similar objects together. Sympathy also causes a “displacement of qualities” or “assimilation”: objects can take on the characteristics of the objects to which they are attracted. Antipathy, its opposite, maintains distinctions between things ▯ ▯ The Uses of Similitudes The world is “legibly marked” because things in the world are “inscribed” with signs These marks help us to interpret the object and offer clues about its uses In the 16th century, “to search for a meaning is to bring to light a resemblance” ▯ Unit I: Meditation, Investigation, Inwardness ▯ • Lyric poetry as a genre: short, intimate; intensely focused, narrow in scope; “overheard speech” • Meditation: the practice of directed private contemplation; usually connected to Christian religious practice • Investigation: Ashift from deductive to inductive reasoning in the period • Inwardness: An anxiety about the identity and beliefs of others – since such matters are almost always unknowable ▯ Catholics, Anglicans, Puritans • Catholics: Loyal to the Catholic Church, headed by the Pope and based in Rome; professed no loyalty to the Church of England • Anglicans: Members of the official state religion of England, the Church of England, a Protestant church; a diverse group with a wide range of beliefs, some more conservative (attached to Catholic rites and forms), others more “radical” (see Puritans, below) • Puritans: Some Puritans were members of the Church of England who believed it was too similar to the Catholic Church; they sought to “purify” the English Church by “cleansing” it of Catholic beliefs ▯ Anglican Poets ▯ •John Donne (born Catholic) •Born in 1572 to a Catholic family •He spent his early career writing love poems and other secular poetry; he converted to Anglicanism in his 20s • Holy Sonnets 1, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14, 19 (pp. 1410-1415), • “Meditation 4” from Devotions upon Emergent Occasions (pp. 1419-1420) • Donne is exploring the relationship between the ailing body and the ailing spirit • He takes a “natural philosophy” approach: his is an attempt to understand the natural world as well as spiritual matters • Does Donne’s meditation adhere to the guidelines laid out by de Sales? Hall? • • What about Donne’s own depiction of private prayer? ▯ •George Herbert • Born in 1593; his mother, Magdalen Herbert, was a patron of Donne and the dedicatee of Donne’s Holy Sonnets •After serving in Parliament, he quit politics and became an Anglican priest; he served as Rector in a small village in Wiltshire •Died in 1633, two years after Donne • poems from The Temple: “The Altar,” “Redemption,” “Easter,” “Easter Wings,” “Jordan (1)” (pp. 1707-1712 •Herbert described the work as “a picture of the many spiritual conflicts that have passed between God and my soul” •Used the spatial dimensions of the church building to depict the spiritual drama of repentance and salvation •According to Michael Schoenfeldt, The Temple adapts the rhetoric usually employed to praise (and persuade) earthly monarchs in order to praise God; he is transforming secular rhetoric for use in his religious poetry. •By invoking the language of secular obedience and praise, Herbert is exercising a complicated kind of power over God -- at once “praising and manipulating God” ▯ •Henry Vaughan •Born in 1621, in Wales, where he was to spend most of his life •Influenced by Donne and Herbert, as well as Ben Jonson; Vaughan is one of the “Cavalier poets” •Loyal to the Anglican Church even in the midst of the Civil Wars, when Puritans like Cromwell believed Anglicanism to be too closely tied to Catholicism •Died in 1695 •“Corruption,” “The World,” “The Night,” “The Waterfall” (pp. 1732-1740) •“The World” •Adream-vision: a spiritually instructive narrative experienced during sleep, presumably (“the other night”) •Aprogressive journey though allegorical scenes or tableaux • • How does the inclusion of John 2:16-17 affect our experience of the poem? •”Corruption” •Eschatology: the study of the end of the world and the ultimate destiny of mankind •The present-day experience of humanity as a low point, sandwiched between the perfection of Eden and the promise of the apocalypse •Alonging for prelapsarian experience ▯ •”The Night”: John 3:1-7 •There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: •The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him. •Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. •Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born • • What aspects of the passage from John does Vaughan seem to emphasize? • • What kind of relationship does Nicodemus have with Christ, according to the poem? What about the speaker? ▯ ▯ •Thomas Traherne •Born in 1637, to a shoemaker •Became a priest, known for his polemics against Roman Catholicism •Little is known about the details of his life; his works were re-discovered in the 19th century after centuries of neglect •excerpt from Centuries of Meditation (pp. 1880-1881); “Wonder,” “On Leaping Over the Moon” (pp. 1881-1884) •“Wonder” •Alonging for prelapsarian perfection: childhood as the personal, small- scale equivalent of the time before the fall •Personal time vs. the temporal sweep of Christian history •Without knowledge (the knowledge of good and evil, perhaps?), sin isn’t possible •Yet (the poem seems to ask), is goodness possible in the absence of such knowledge? ▯ •Andrew Marvell (briefly Catholic) •Born in Yorkshire in 1621; his father was an Anglican priest •Attended Trinity College, Cambridge, but moved to London and converted to Roman Catholicism before completing his degree; he returned to Cambridge under pressure from his father •Traveled to Europe during the Civil Wars; his political views are difficult to reconstruct •Elected to Parliament during the Restoration •Afriend to Milton and other anti-royalists, and the author of anti-royalist tracts, Marvell was not fully in agreement with the religious or political views of Cromwell and other revolutionaries • Died in 1681; many poems published posthumously •“The Coronet,” “A Dialogue Between the Soul and Body” (pp. 1791-1793) •“The Mower Against Gardens (pp. 1800-1801) •Instead of the conventional shepherd, Marvell depicts a “mower” (someone who cuts grass with a scythe) •He transforms the central image of the pastoral: rather than gathering and guiding sheep, the mower plants and harvests •Resonances with folk images of death and time; with the story of the Fall and Adam and Eve’s expulsion from Eden; and with Isaiah 40:6-8 ▯ Catholic Poets ▯ •Ben Jonson (born Anglican) •Born in London in 1572, to a professional family •Well-educated at Westminster School, but never attended University •Wrote daring plays satirizing James I, political corruption at court, and London society •In addition to being a playwright, Jonson was an accomplished poet – often called England’s first “professional” poet – and inspired the Cavalier Poets, or “Sons of Ben” •Volpone (pp. 1445-1539), The Masque of Blackness (BB) ▯ •Richard Crashaw (born Puritan) •poems from Steps to the Temple: “To the Infant Martyrs,” “I Am the Door,” and “On the Wounds of Our Crucified Lord” (pp. 1745-1756) •“In the Holy Nativity of Our Lord God” from Carmen Deo Nostro(pp1747-1749) • Apastoral scene: conventional Latin names for shepherds • Influenced by the oratorio form; possibly intended for (private) performance • The “pathetic fallacy”: nature shares, and displays, human emotions •The Baroque •Alate-seventeenth-century European style of art, music, and literature •“Exuberant, sensuous, and elaborately ornamented”: complex, “busy,” intensely emotional •According to detractors, baroque style was unharmonious, excessive, “indecorous” •For the Catholic Crashaw, a reaction to Puritan austerity •Crashaw’s “principal defect” William Hayley - “He now and then speaks of sacred things with a vulgar and ludicrous familiarity of language...” ▯ •John Dryden (born Anglican) •Born in 1631 to a Puritan family •Worked in Cromwell’s administration, but expressed royalist views after the •Restoration; he eventually converted to Catholicism •Wrote a number of satirical plays as well as poetry; was an admirer of Milton •Absalom and Achitophel (pp. 2212-2236) •Cast of Characters •Charles II (David in A&A): King of England The Duke of Monmouth •(Absalom): Charles’ illegitimate son The Earl of Shaftesbury •(Achitophel): Aconfidant and advisor to Monmouth, who encouraged him to scheme to replace James as Charles II’s successor •Egypt = France
 •Jesubites = Roman Catholics •Dryden’s depiction of religion: balancing anti- Catholic sentiment with support of pro-Catholic Charles and James •What are the sources of legitimate power -- would Dryden agree with Filmer and/or Hobbes? •Persuasion and Rhetoric: Does Achitophel share any qualities with Milton’s Satan? •What is the genre of this poem? ▯ •Andrew Marvell (only briefly Catholic) •“The Coronet,” “A Dialogue Between the Soul and Body” (pp. 1791-1793) •An Horatian Ode •Horace: an ancient Roman poet famous for his odes, serene, contemplative poems exploring issues like friendship •In the tradition of Horace, Marvell takes a detached, considered approach to the events of the Civil Wars •How does Marvell’s poem depict Cromwell and Charles? •How does Marvell’s approach differ from Philips’ self-presentation in “On The Double Murder of King Charles”? ▯ •John Milton: A Puritan Poet •Born in 1608, to a middle-class professional family; his father was a scrivener •Instead of becoming an Anglican priest, he took time off to study literature independently and begin a literary career •Sympathized with the Puritan (revolutionary) cause during the English Civil War •Served in Cromwell’s government as “Latin Secretary” (a high-ranking diplomat) •Remained staunchly anti-monarchical even into the Restoration, defending republicanism •Like Cromwell and his supporters, Milton wished to “purify” the Anglican Church and get rid of “Popish” rites and practices •Died in 1674 •“On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity” (pp. 1901-1909) •Like Crashaw’s “Holy Nativity,” Milton’s poem takes place in a pastoral setting; but what are some differences between them? •An archaic style: “Spenserian y-prefixes” •An attempt to blend a classical literary and cultural heritage with Christian history and 17th-century science •“When I Consider How My Light Is Spent” •What does the poem propose as the alternative to “man’s work” or “his own gifts”? •God’s “state / Is kingly”: what does this phrase imply about divine authority? •“They also serve who stand and wait” ▯ •“On the Late Massacre in Piedmont” •The Waldensians: an early “Protestant” sect admired by 17th-century English Protestants as participating in a “pure” form of Christian belief and worship, unadulterated by the influence of the Catholic Church •Because of their political alliances with other Protestant nations, English Protestants tended to get involved in religious conflicts on the Continent •“Methought I Saw My Late Espoused Saint” (pp. 1942-1943) •”Tenure” •Most men are unintelligent and have poor judgment; they are selfish, capricious, and inconsistent •Still, men are “born free” and have the right to overthrow rulers who are not acting in their interests; this right resides in “the people” •What is Milton’s account of the origins of political power?
 •How does his account differ from that of Hobbes? •A Few Key Points from Tenure •Political leaders were chosen “not to be their lords and masters...but to be their deputies and commi
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