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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Chapter Five: Earth Systems and Ecosystem Ecology EARTHS ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS Cycles flows of elements, compounds, and energy from reservoir to reservoir through the Earth system Systems show several defining properties: System a network of relationships among a group of parts, elements, or components that interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, andor information o Receive inputs of energy, matter, or information, process them and produce outputs Open system a system that exchanges energy, matter, and information with other systems o System that receive inputs of both energy and matter and produce outputs of both Closed system a system that is self-contained with regard to exchanges of matter (but not energy) with its surroundings o System that receive inputs and produce outputs of energy but not matter o Matter cycles around system but does not enter or leave it o No natural system is truly closed Feedback loop a circular process in which a systems output serves as input to that same system o Negative feedback loop a feedback loop in which output of one type acts as input that moves the system in the opposite direction. The input and output essentially neutralize each others effects, stabilizing the system Ex: furnace turns on when room cold, off when room hot www.notesolution.com
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